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#otd in Royal History 1-16 September


Blog cover - September 1-16. Queen Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth I,  Richard the Lionheart, Richard II

1 September

Anonymous artist's impression of Richard II in the 16th century. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Anonymous artist's impression of Richard II in the 16th century. National Portrait Gallery, London.

1 September 1399

Richard II was imprisoned in the Tower of London,

after surrendering to Henry Bolingbroke (later Henry IV)


The king's dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent among the influential, & in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, & for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. In 1397, he took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. The next two years have been described by historians as Richard's "tyranny". In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry Bolingbroke (later king Henry IV), who had previously been exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. On 19 August, Richard surrendered to Henry Bolingbroke at Flint Castle, promising to abdicate if his life were spared.


Richard II's surrender to Henry Bolingbroke at Flint Castle in Wales
Richard's surrender to Henry at Flint Castle in Wales

Richard II surrendering the crown to Henry Bolingbroke
Richard surrendering the crown to Henry

Both men then returned to London, the indignant king riding all the way behind Henry. On arrival, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London on 1 September.


According to the official record, read by the Archbishop of Canterbury during an assembly of lords & commons at Westminster Hall on Tuesday 30 September, Richard gave up his crown willingly & ratified his deposition citing as a reason his own unworthiness as a monarch. On the other hand, the Traison et Mort Chronicle suggests otherwise. It describes a meeting between Richard & Henry that took place one day before the parliament's session. The king succumbed to blind rage, ordered his release from the Tower, called his cousin a traitor, demanded to see his wife & swore revenge throwing down his bonnet, while Henry refused to do anything without parliamentary approval. When parliament met to discuss Richard's fate, John Trevor, Bishop of St Asaph, read thirty-three articles of deposition that were unanimously accepted by lords & commons. On 1 October 1399, Richard II was formally deposed. On 13 October, the feast day of Edward the Confessor, Henry Bolingbroke was crowned king.


Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication. This all changed when it was revealed that the earls of Huntingdon, Kent, & Salisbury & Lord Despenser, & possibly also the Earl of Rutland – all now demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard – were planning to murder the new king & restore Richard in the Epiphany Rising. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live. He is thought to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400, although there is some question over the date & manner of his death.



 

Anne Boleyn

1 September 1532

Lady Anne Boleyn was granted the title Marquess of Pembroke


On 1 September 1532, Henry VIII made Anne Boleyn, a Marquis of Pembroke, a title in her own right, to “fit” her for the European stage & in readiness for the couple’s upcoming meeting with King Francis I of France. Anne became a rich & important woman: the three dukes & two marquesses who existed in 1532 were the King's brother-in-law, the King's illegitimate son, & other descendants of royalty; she ranked above all other peeresses. 'The Great Matter'* was still not resolved & Anne was not yet Henry’s wife & Queen, so she required some status befitting of England’s future Queen.


King Henry VIII

The ceremony took place at Windsor Castle & was an elaborate affair, witnessed by the highest ranking peers & clergy in the kingdom. Anne, loose haired & dressed in jewels & ermine trimmed velvet, looked like a queen. Accompanied by her cousin, Mary Howard, & the Countesses of Derby & Rutland, Anne was taken into Henry VIII’s presence by the Garter King-at-arms. She knelt in front of the King & the Dukes of Norfolk & Suffolk, & listened as Stephen Gardiner read out the patent which gave her the title of Marquis of Pembroke, a title that would pass on to her offspring.


After this patent was read, the King crowned her with the gold coronet of a marquis & placed on her a crimson velvet mantle. Anne received not only the patent but also her own lands, which were worth over £1000 per year. Anne would be the first & last holder of the title.


* Henry was seeking the pope's blessing for his wish to divorce Queen Katharine, so he could marry Anne, he called this 'The Great Matter'.


The then extinct title of Earl of Pembroke had been very significant for the House of Tudor. It was held by Henry VIII's grand-uncle, Jasper Tudor, & it referred to the birthplace of King Henry VII. .


Anne Boleyn Coat of Arms & signature

 

2 September

2 September 1192

The Treaty of Jaffa was signed between king Richard I of England and Saladin, leading to the end of the Third Crusade.


The Treaty of Jaffa was signed between king Richard I of England and Saladin, leading to the end of the Third Crusade.

The treaty of Jaffa 1192


 

The Great Fire of London, depicted by an unknown painter (1675), as it would have appeared from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September 1666. To the left is London Bridge; to the right, the Tower of London. Old St Paul's Cathedral is in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.

The Great Fire of London, depicted by an unknown painter (1675), as it would have appeared from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September 1666. To the left is London Bridge; to the right, the Tower of London. Old St Paul's Cathedral is in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames.


2 September 1666

The Great Fire of London breaks out and burns for three days


The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall. It destroyed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul's Cathedral, & most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's 80,000 inhabitants.


The fire started in a bakery shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, & spread rapidly. The use of the major firefighting technique of the time, the creation of firebreaks by means of demolition, was critically delayed due to the indecisiveness of the Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas Bloodworth. By the time large-scale demolitions were ordered on Sunday night, the wind had already fanned the bakery fire into a firestorm which defeated such measures. The fire pushed north on Monday into the heart of the City. On Tuesday, the fire spread over nearly the whole City, destroying St. Paul's Cathedral & leaping the River Fleet to threaten Charles II's court at Whitehall. Coordinated firefighting efforts were simultaneously getting underway. The battle to put out the fire is considered to have been won by two key factors: the strong east wind dropped, & the Tower of London garrison used gunpowder to create effective firebreaks, halting further spread eastward.


The death toll is unknown but generally thought to have been relatively small; only six verified deaths were recorded. Some historians have challenged this belief claiming the deaths of poorer citizens were not recorded & that the heat of the fire may have cremated many victims, leaving no recognisable remains. A melted piece of pottery on display at the Museum of London found by archaeologists in Pudding Lane, where the fire started, shows that the temperature reached 1,250 °C (2,280 °F; 1,520 K). After the fire, London was reconstructed on essentially the same medieval street plan which still exists today.


A panorama of the City of London in 1616 by Claes Visscher. The tenement housing on London Bridge (far right) was a notorious death-trap in case of fire; much would be destroyed in a fire in 1633.
A panorama of the City of London in 1616

A panorama of the City of London in 1616 by Claes Visscher. The tenement housing on London Bridge (far right) was a notorious death-trap in case of fire; much would be destroyed in a fire in 1633.


The London Gazette for 3–10 September, facsimile front page with an account of the Great Fire.

The London Gazette for 3–10 September, facsimile front page with an account of the Great Fire.


The LONDONERS Lamentation, a broadside ballad published in 1666 giving an account of the fire, and of the limits of its destruction.

The LONDONERS Lamentation, a broadside ballad published in 1666 giving an account of the fire, and of the limits of its destruction.


English History: People, places and events that built a country - pocket book

 

2 September 1705

George II married Caroline of Ansbach


George II Portrait by Kneller, 1716
George II, 1716

Caroline of Ansbach by Godfrey Kneller, 1716
Caroline of Ansbach by Godfrey Kneller, 1716

On 22 September 1705 Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, which was held the same evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. Caroline's ten pregnancies resulted in eight live births. One of their children died in infancy, & seven lived to adulthood.


  • Frederick, Prince of Wales (1 February 1707 - 31 March 1751). He married Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha in 1736; among his children was the future George III.

  • Anne, Princess Royal (2 November 1709 - 12 January 1759), married William IV, Prince of Orange in 1734.

  • Princess Amelia (10 June 1711 - 31 October 1786), never married.

  • Princess Caroline (10 June 1713 - 28 December 1757), never married.

  • Stillborn son (20 November 1716).

  • Prince George William (13 November 1717 - 17 February 1718).

  • Miscarriage (1718).

  • Prince William, Duke of Cumberland (26 April 1721 - 31 October 1765), never married.

  • Princess Mary (5 March 1723 - 14 January 1772), married Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel in 1740.

  • Princess Louisa (18 December 1724 - 19 December 1751), she married Frederick V, King of Denmark and Norway in 1743


Kings and Queens - Amazing and Extraordinary Facts Book

 

3 September

Richard I being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle
Richard I being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle

3 September 1189

King Richard I coronation at Westminster Abbey


Richard I was crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey on 3 September 1189. Tradition barred all Jews & women from the investiture, but some Jewish leaders arrived to present gifts for the new king. According to Ralph of Diceto, Richard's courtiers stripped & flogged the Jews, then flung them out of court.


When a rumour spread that Richard had ordered all Jews to be killed, the people of London attacked the Jewish population. Many Jewish homes were destroyed by arsonists, & several Jews were forcibly converted. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, & others managed to escape. Among those killed was Jacob of Orléans, a respected Jewish scholar. Roger of Howden, in his Gesta Regis Ricardi, claimed that the jealous & bigoted citizens started the rioting, & that Richard punished the perpetrators, allowing a forcibly converted Jew to return to his native religion. Baldwin of Forde, Archbishop of Canterbury, reacted by remarking, "If the King is not God's man, he had better be the devil's".


Offended that he was not being obeyed & realising that the assaults could destabilise his realm on the eve of his departure on crusade, Richard ordered the execution of those responsible for the most egregious murders & persecutions, including rioters who had accidentally burned down Christian homes. He distributed a royal writ demanding that the Jews be left alone. The edict was only loosely enforced, however, & the following March further violence occurred, including a massacre at York.


Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine & Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, & Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, & Nantes, & was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England & Eleanor of Aquitaine & seemed unlikely to become king, but all his brothers except the youngest, John, predeceased their father. Richard is known as Richard Cœur de Lion (Norman French: Le quor de lion) or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader & warrior.


Kings and Queens of England and Scotland

 

James and Anne Hyde in the 1660s, by Sir Peter Lely
James & Anne Hyde in the 1660s, by Sir Peter Lely

3 September 1660

James, Duke of York (later King James II) married Anne Hyde


On 31 December 1660, following his brother's (Charles II) restoration, James was created Duke of Albany in Scotland, to go along with his English title, Duke of York. Upon his return to England, James prompted an immediate controversy by announcing his engagement to Anne Hyde, the daughter of Charles's chief minister, Edward Hyde. In 1659, while trying to seduce her, James promised he would marry Anne. Anne became pregnant in 1660, but following the Restoration & James's return to power, no one at the royal court expected a prince to marry a commoner, no matter what he had pledged beforehand. Although nearly everyone, including Anne's father, urged the two not to marry, the couple married secretly, then went through an official marriage ceremony on 3 September 1660 in London. They had eight children, although four died very young.


Samuel Pepys wrote that James was fond of his children & his role as a father, & played with them "like an ordinary private father of a child", a contrast to the distant parenting common with royalty at the time. James's wife was devoted to him & influenced many of his decisions. Anne died in 1671, & James later married Mary of Modena in 1673.


 


4 September

4 September 925

Athelstan coronation at Kingston upon Thames


Æthelstan presenting a book to St Cuthbert c.930, the earliest surviving portrait of an English king. Illustration in a manuscript of Bede's Life of Saint Cuthbert presented by Æthelstan to the saint's shrine in Chester-le-Street. He wore a crown of the same design on his "crowned bust" coins.

Æthelstan presenting a book to St Cuthbert c.930, the earliest surviving portrait of an English king. Illustration in a manuscript of Bede's Life of Saint Cuthbert presented by Æthelstan to the saint's shrine in Chester-le-Street. He wore a crown of the same design on his "crowned bust" coins.



Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æðelstān [ˈæðelstɑ:n]; Old Norse: Aðalsteinn; lit. 'noble stone'; c. 894 – 27 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 & King of the English from 927 to his death in 939. He was the son of King Edward the Elder & his first wife, Ecgwynn. Modern historians regard him as the first King of England and one of the "greatest Anglo-Saxon kings". He never married & had no children. He was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund I.


When Edward the Elder died in July 924, Æthelstan was accepted by the Mercians as king. His half-brother Ælfweard may have been recognised as king in Wessex, but died within three weeks of their father's death. Æthelstan encountered resistance in Wessex for several months, & was not crowned until September 925. In 927 he conquered the last remaining Viking kingdom, York, making him the first Anglo-Saxon ruler of the whole of England. In 934 he invaded Scotland & forced Constantine II to submit to him. Æthelstan's rule was resented by the Scots & Vikings, & in 937 they invaded England. Æthelstan defeated them at the Battle of Brunanburh, a victory that gave him great prestige both in the British Isles & on the Continent. After his death in 939 the Vikings seized back control of York, & it was not finally reconquered until 954.


Æthelstan centralised government; he increased control over the production of charters & summoned leading figures from distant areas to his councils. These meetings were also attended by rulers from outside his territory, especially Welsh kings, who thus acknowledged his overlordship. More legal texts survive from his reign than from any other 10th-century English king. They show his concern about widespread robberies, & the threat they posed to social order. His legal reforms built on those of his grandfather, Alfred the Great. Æthelstan was one of the most pious West Saxon kings, & was known for collecting relics & founding churches. His household was the centre of English learning during his reign, & it laid the foundation for the Benedictine monastic reform later in the century. No other West Saxon king played as important a role in European politics as Æthelstan, & he arranged the marriages of several of his sisters to continental rulers.


Athelstan by Tom Holland - Penguin Monarchs

 

4 September 1241

Alexander III, king of Scots was born at Roxburgh Castle.


Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh Alban, the royal poet of Scotland, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Albanaich - "God Bless the King of Scots"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy. Malcolm II, Earl of Fife, depicted holding the sword standing beside King Alexander.

Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh Alban, the royal poet of Scotland, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Albanaich - "God Bless the King of Scots"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy. Malcolm II, Earl of Fife, depicted holding the sword standing beside King Alexander.


Alexander III was King of Scots from 1249 until his death in 1286. He concluded the Treaty of Perth, by which Scotland acquired sovereignty over the Western Isles & the Isle of Man. He was the only son of Alexander II by his 2nd wife Marie de Coucy. Alexander's father died on 6 July 1249 & he became king at the age of 7.


He married twice; firstly to Margaret of England, daughter of Henry III of England & Eleanor of Provence on 26 December 1251, when he was ten years old & she was eleven. She died in 1275, after they had had three children.


  • Margaret (1261 – 1283), who married King Eric II of Norway.

  • Alexander, Prince of Scotland (1264 - 1284).

  • David (1272 – 1281)


Towards the end of Alexander's reign, the death of all three of his children within a few years made the question of the succession one of pressing importance. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the "Maid of Norway". The need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1 November 1285.


Alexander died in a fall from his horse while riding in the dark to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 19 March 1286 because it was her birthday the next day. Alexander ignored the repeated warnings about travelling in a storm. The king became separated from his party near Kinghorn, & was found dead with a broken neck near the shore the following morning. It is assumed that his horse lost its footing in the dark. After Alexander's death, his realm was plunged into a period of darkness that would eventually lead to war with England.


He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey. As Alexander left no surviving children, the heir to the throne was his unborn child by Queen Yolande. When Yolande's pregnancy ended, probably with a miscarriage, Alexander's three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, became the heir. Margaret died, still uncrowned, on her way to Scotland in 1290. The inauguration of John Balliol as king on 30 November 1292 ended the six years of the Guardians of Scotland governing the land.


Statue of Alexander on the west door of St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh
Statue of Alexander on the west door of St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh

Scottish History: From Bannockburn to Holyrood (Collins Little Books)

Visit our shop for more royal history books.

 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester

4 September 1588

Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester died (b. 1532)


Robert Dudley was the fifth son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, & his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Edward Guildford. In 1553 after his father, the Duke of Northumberland, had failed to prevent the accession of Mary I. Robert Dudley was condemned to death but was released in 1554 & took part in the Battle of St. Quentin under Mary's husband & co-ruler, Philip, which led to his full rehabilitation. On Elizabeth I's accession in November 1558, Dudley was appointed Master of the Horse. He later became a Privy Councillor, Lord Steward of the Royal Household & Earl of Leicester. Ge was one of the greatest landowners in North Wales & the English West Midlands by royal grants.


Elizabeth I's coronation procession: Robert Dudley is on horseback on the far left, leading the palfrey of honour.
Elizabeth I's coronation procession: Robert Dudley is on horseback on the far left, leading the palfrey of honour.

He was one of Elizabeth I's leading statesmen, involved in domestic as well as foreign politics alongside William Cecil & Francis Walsingham. Although he refused to be married to Mary, Queen of Scots, Dudley was for a long time relatively sympathetic to her until, from the mid-1580s, he strongly advocated for her execution. As patron of the Puritan movement, he supported non-conforming preachers but tried to mediate between them & the bishops of the Church of England. A champion also of the international Protestant cause, he led the English campaign in support of the Dutch Revolt (1585–87). His acceptance of the post of Governor-General of the United Provinces infuriated Queen Elizabeth. The expedition was a military & political failure, & it ruined the Earl financially.


Queen Elizabeth I and the Earl of Leicester by William Frederick Yeames, 1865
Queen Elizabeth I and the Earl of Leicester by William Frederick Yeames, 1865

He was engaged in many large-scale business ventures & was one of the main backers of Francis Drake & other explorers & privateers. During the Spanish Armada, the Earl was in overall command of the English land forces. In this function, he invited Queen Elizabeth to visit her troops at Tilbury. This was the last of many events he had organised over the years, the most spectacular being the festival at his seat Kenilworth Castle in 1575 on occasion of a three-week visit by the Queen. Dudley was a principal patron of the arts, literature, & the Elizabethan theatre.


The tomb of Robert and Lettice Dudley, erected by the Countess. Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick

The tomb of Robert & Lettice Dudley, erected by the Countess. Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick


 

5 September

Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's sixth wife.
Catherine Parr

5 September 1548

Catherine Parr died


Catherine Parr (born c. August 1512) was Queen of England & Ireland (1543–47) as the last of the six wives of King Henry VIII, & the final queen consort of the House of Tudor. She married him on 12 July 1543, & outlived him by a year & eight months. With four husbands, she is the most-married English queen. She was the first woman to publish under her own name in English in England


Catherine enjoyed a close relationship with Henry's three children & was personally involved in the education of her stepchildren Elizabeth I & Edward VI. She was influential in Henry's passing of the Third Succession Act in 1543 that restored both his daughters, Mary & Elizabeth, to the line of succession to the throne. Catherine was appointed regent from July to September 1544 while Henry was on a military campaign in France & in case he lost his life, she was to rule as regent until Edward came of age. However, he did not give her any function in government in his will. On 25 April 1544, she published her first book, Psalms or Prayers, anonymously. On account of Catherine's Protestant sympathies, she provoked the enmity of anti-Protestant officials, who sought to turn the King against her; a warrant for her arrest was drawn up in 1545. However, she & the King soon reconciled. Her book Prayers or Meditations became the first book published by an English queen under her own name on 2 June 1545. She assumed the role of Elizabeth's guardian following the King's death, & published a third book, The Lamentation of a Sinner, on 5 November 1547.


Henry died on 28 January 1547. After the king's death, Catherine was allowed to keep the queen's jewels & dresses as queen dowager. About six months after Henry's death, she married her fourth & final husband, Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley. The marriage was short-lived, as she died on Wednesday, 5 September 1548 due to complications of childbirth. Parr's funeral was held on 7 September 1548. Parr's funeral was the first Protestant funeral in England, Scotland or Ireland to be held in English.


Tomb of Catherine Parr in St. Mary's Chapel, Sudeley Castle
Tomb of Catherine Parr in St. Mary's Chapel, Sudeley Castle

Tomb of Catherine Parr in St. Mary's Chapel, Sudeley Castle
Tomb of Catherine Parr in St. Mary's Chapel, Sudeley Castle

Sudeley Castle

Her four marriages;

  • Sir Edward Burgh ​(m. 1529; d. 1533)​

  • John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer ​(m. 1534; d. 1543)​

  • Henry VIII of England ​(m. 1543; d. 1547)​

  • Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley ​(m. 1547)


'Kateryn the Quene KP' - Catherine Parr's signature.
'Kateryn the Quene KP' - Catherine Parr's signature.


 

6 September


6 September 1997

The Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales


✝️ Diana's funeral took place in Westminster Abbey on 6 September 1997. The previous day Queen Elizabeth II had paid tribute to her in a live television broadcast. Her sons walked in the funeral procession behind her coffin, along with the Prince of Wales & the Duke of Edinburgh, & with Diana's brother, Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer. Representatives from the charities with which she worked during her life were invited to walk behind her coffin. Re-written in tribute to Diana, "Candle in the Wind" was performed by Elton John at the funeral service (the only occasion the song has ever been performed live), while the global proceeds from the subsequent sale of the song have gone to Diana's charities.


The burial occurred privately later the same day. Diana's former husband, sons, mother, siblings, a close friend, & a clergyman were present. Diana's body was clothed in a black long-sleeved dress designed by Catherine Walker. A set of rosary beads was placed in her hands, a gift she had received from Mother Teresa, who died the same week as Diana. Her grave is on an island within the grounds of Althorp Park, the Spencer family home for centuries.


The burial party was provided by the 2nd Battalion The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, who were given the honour of carrying the Princess across to the island and lay her to rest. Diana was the Regiment's Colonel-in-Chief from 1992 to 1996. The original plan was for Diana to be buried in the Spencer family vault at the local church in nearby Great Brington, but Lord Spencer said that he was concerned about public safety & security and the onslaught of visitors that might overwhelm Great Brington. He decided that Diana would be buried where her grave could be easily cared for & visited in privacy by William, Harry, & other Spencer relatives.


Read our Diana biography here



OK! Royal Special: Princess Diana - Her Life, her legacy

 

7 September

7 September 1191

Third Crusade: Battle of Arsuf: Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.


7 September 1191 – Third Crusade: Battle of Arsuf: Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.

7 September 1191 – Third Crusade: Battle of Arsuf: Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.

 

Queen Elizabeth I

7 September 1533

Queen Elizabeth I was born


Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace & was named after her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York & Elizabeth Howard. She was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England. Her older half-sister, Mary, had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir & ensure the Tudor succession.


Elizabeth I when Lady Elizabeth

Elizabeth I was Queen of England & Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Sometimes called the Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor.


Queen Elizabeth I

Elizabeth was two years & eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, & Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother Edward VI ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey & ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, the Roman Catholic Mary & the younger Elizabeth, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside & Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.



Upon her half-sister's death in 1558, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne & set out to rule by good counsel. She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley. One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the supreme governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry & produce an heir; however, despite numerous courtships, she never did. She was eventually succeeded by her first-cousin twice-removed, James VI of Scotland, laying the foundation for the Kingdom of Great Britain. She had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment & execution of James's mother, Mary, Queen of Scots.


Elizabeth I, Queen of England

In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father & half-siblings had been. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo" ("I see & keep silent"). In religion, she was relatively tolerant & avoided systematic persecution. After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570 & released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of France & Spain. She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, & Ireland. By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain.


Elizabeth I

As she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult of personality grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day. Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era. The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare & Christopher Marlowe, & for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic & military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer & a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle & limited, & when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom & helped forge a sense of national identity.


Elizabeth I's signature
Elizabeth I's signature


 

8 September

King Richard III of England

8 September 1157

Richard I was born (d. 1199)


Richard was born, probably at Beaumont Palace, in Oxford, England, son of King Henry II of England & Eleanor of Aquitaine.


Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine & Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, & Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, & Nantes, & was also overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. Richard is known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader & warrior.


 

King George III and Queen Charlotte

8 September 1761

George III married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz


They married in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight later on 22 September, both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George never took a mistress (in contrast with his grandfather & his sons), & the couple enjoyed a happy marriage until his mental illness struck.


They had 15 children nine sons & six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House (on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace) for use as a family retreat. His other residences were Kew Palace & Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for official use. He did not travel extensively & spent his entire life in southern England. In the 1790s, the King & his family took holidays at Weymouth, Dorset, which he thus popularised as one of the first seaside resorts in England.


 

King William IV of Great Britain

8 September 1831

William IV coronation


When George IV died, he had no surviving legitimate children. The crown therefore passed to his younger brother, William, the third son of George III. William had spent most of his life at sea, & had joined his first ship as a midshipman, aged just thirteen. He had been given no privileges, & ate, drank, swore, & gambled, just like many a rough-&-tumble teenager in the navy. All his life he had despised airs & graces, & when he came out of naval service he lived quietly & privately with Mrs Dorothy Jordan, a successful actress, fathering their ten illegitimate children. Despite this, in 1818 the 52 year old William married 25-year-old Princess Adelaide from the small German Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen.


Queen Adelaide

William, who loathed any kind of pomp or ceremony, had actually tried his best not to have any coronation at all. In the end, the 66 year old king went through with an extremely low-key event. William was a relatively popular monarch after the shameless exhibitionism of George IV. In the coronation service itself William was keen to cut out any unnecessary ceremony or expense as well. There was no ceremonial walk to the abbey; the sword was not buckled on him, as had always been the custom; & even the number of musicians was strictly limited.


However, perhaps the most surprising moment came when William was due to be anointed. When his outer robe was removed, he revealed himself to be wearing the full-dress Royal Navy uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet! This was so tightly-buttoned that the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley, in a state of consternation, was faced with the embarrassing problem of having to anoint a fully-clad admiral on the breast, the shoulders, or even the elbows.


Parliament had voted £243,000 for George IV’s coronation, but William’s cost £37,000!



 


Queen Elizabeth II 1926-2022

8 September 2022

Queen Elizabeth II died aged 96.


Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom & other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022.


She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states over the course of her lifetime & remained the monarch of 15 realms by the time of her death. Her reign of over 70 years is the longest of any British monarch & the longest verified reign of any female head of state in history.


Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. She was the first child of the Duke & Duchess of York (later King George VI & Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother). Her father acceded to the throne in 1936 upon the abdication of his brother Edward VIII, making the ten-year-old Princess Elizabeth the heir presumptive. She was educated privately at home & began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In November 1947, she married Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, & their marriage lasted 73 years until his death in 2021. They had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, & Edward.


When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth—then 25 years old—became queen of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, & Ceylon (known today as Sri Lanka), as well as head of the Commonwealth. The number of her realms varied over time as territories gained independence & some realms became republics.

As queen, Elizabeth was served by more than 170 prime ministers across her realms. Her many historic visits & meetings included state visits to China in 1986, to Russia in 1994, & to the Republic of Ireland in 2011, & meetings with five popes.


Significant events included Elizabeth's coronation in 1953 & the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, Diamond, & Platinum jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012, & 2022, respectively.


Elizabeth died aged 96 at Balmoral Castle in September 2022, & was succeeded by her eldest son, Charles III.


Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II: 1926–2022 Book

 

9 September

William the Conqueror, king of England

9 September 1087

William the Conqueror died


William the Conqueror, king of England

William the conqueror, king of England

William the Conqueror, king of England

 

Queen Elizabeth II

9 September 2015

Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch of the United Kingdom.


Elizabeth II (born 21 April 1926), Queen of the United Kingdom & the other Commonwealth realms since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth is the longest-lived & longest-reigning British monarch, the longest-serving female head of state in history, the oldest living & longest-reigning current monarch, & the oldest & longest-serving incumbent head of state.



 

10 September

10 September 1167

Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress died


Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress

Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress

Matilda of England, Holy Roman Empress

 

11 September

Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne

11 September 1862

Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne (née Cavendish-Bentinck) was born.


Cecilia Nina Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne (née Cavendish-Bentinck; 11 September 1862 – 23 June 1938) was the mother of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother & maternal grandmother & godmother of Queen Elizabeth II.


She was born in Belgravia, Westminster, the eldest daughter of the Rev. Charles Cavendish-Bentinck (grandson of British Prime Minister William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland) & his wife, Louisa (née Burnaby).


On 16 July 1881, she married Claude Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis, at St Peter's Church, Petersham, Surrey, & they had ten children. Claude inherited his father's title of Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne in 1904, whereupon Cecilia became Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne.


 

12 September

The tomb of Blanche and John of Gaunt in St. Paul's Cathedral, as represented in an etching of 1658 by Wenceslaus Hollar. The etching includes a number of inaccuracies, for example in not showing the couple with joined hands.

12 September 1368

Blanche of Lancaster died.


Blanche of Lancaster (born. 25 March 1345/1347) was a member of the English royal House of Plantagenet, daughter of the kingdom's wealthiest & most powerful peer, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. She was the first wife of John of Gaunt, the mother of King Henry IV, & the grandmother of King Henry V of England.


Blanche died at Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, on 12 September 1368 while her husband was overseas. She was 23 years of age at the time of her death, although Froissart reported that she died aged about 22. It is believed that she may have died after contracting the Black Death which was rife in Europe at that time. Her funeral at St. Paul's Cathedral in London was preceded by a magnificent cortege attended by most of the upper nobility & clergy. John of Gaunt held annual commemorations of her death for the rest of his life & established a joint chantry foundation on his own death.


In 1374, six years after her death, John of Gaunt commissioned a double tomb for himself & Blanche from the mason Henry Yevele. The magnificent monument in the choir of St Paul's was completed by Yevele in 1380, with the assistance of Thomas Wrek, having cost a total of £592. Gaunt himself died in 1399, & was laid to rest beside Blanche. The two effigies were notable for having their right hands joined. An adjacent chantry chapel was added between 1399 & 1403. Blanche & John of Gaunt together had seven children.


Image above: The tomb of Blanche & John of Gaunt in St. Paul's Cathedral, as represented in an etching of 1658 by Wenceslaus Hollar. The etching includes a number of inaccuracies, for example in not showing the couple with joined hands.


 

Prince Arthur of Connaught


12 September 1938

Prince Arthur of Connaught died.


Prince Arthur was born on 13 January 1883 at Windsor Castle. His father was the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, third son of Queen Victoria & Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His mother was the former Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia.


Arthur was the first British royal prince to be educated at Eton College. After attending finishing school, Prince Arthur was educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, from where he was commissioned into the 7th (Queen's Own) Hussars in 1901. During the Second Boer War, he saw active duty with the 7th Hussars. In 1907, he was promoted to the rank of captain in the 2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys). He became the honorary Colonel-in-Chief of this regiment in 1920.


During the First World War, Prince Arthur served as aide-de-camp to British army Generals Sir John French & Sir Douglas Haig, the successive commanders of the British Expeditionary Force in France & Belgium. In October 1922, Prince Arthur was promoted to the honorary rank of major general & became an aide-de-camp to his first cousin, King George V. Prince Arthur acted as a Counsellor of State during periods of the King's (George V) absence abroad. In 1906, by order of the King, he vested the Meiji Emperor of Japan with the Order of the Garter, as a consequence of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.


On 15 October 1913, Prince Arthur married his cousin Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife (17 May 1891 – 26 February 1959) at the Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, London. Princess Alexandra was the eldest daughter & heir of the 1st Duke of Fife & the Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of King Edward VII. As such, the couple were first cousins once removed. They had a son, Alastair.


In 1920, Prince Arthur succeeded Viscount Buxton as governor-general & commander-in-chief in South Africa. The Earl of Athlone succeeded him in these posts in 1924. Upon returning to Britain, Prince Arthur became involved in a number of charitable organizations, including serving as chairman of the board of directors of Middlesex Hospital. Like his father, the Duke of Connaught, he was active in the Freemasons, becoming Provincial Grand Master for Berkshire in 1924.


Prince Arthur of Connaught died of stomach cancer at age 55 on 12 September 1938. He is buried in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore. One of his last public appearances was at the coronation of King George VI & Queen Elizabeth in May 1937.


 

13 September

Isabella of Valois, Queen of England

13 September 1409

Isabella of Valois died


Isabella of France (9 November 1389 – 13 September 1409) was Queen of England as the second spouse of Richard II. She married the king at the age of six & was widowed three years later. She later married Charles, Duke of Orléans, dying in childbirth at the age of nineteen. Isabella was the daughter of Charles VI of France & Isabeau of Bavaria.


Isabella married Richard II on 31 October 1396. After the wedding, Queen Isabella followed Richard to England, where she was placed in Windsor Castle with her own court under the supervision of her appointed governess & chief lady-in-waiting Lady de Coucy (later replaced by Lady Mortimer). She was formally crowned Queen of England in Westminster in London the following year, 1397.


In 1400, Richard was killed, & the French court requested that Isabella return to France. King Henry IV initially refused, deciding Queen Isabella should marry his son, the future Henry V of England, but she refused. Knowing her spouse was dead, she went into mourning, ignoring Henry IV's demands. In August 1401, he let her go back to France, but kept her dowry. In 1406.


On 29 June 1406, Queen Isabella, aged 16, married her cousin, Charles, Duke of Orléans, aged 11. She died in childbirth at the age of 19. Her surviving daughter, Joan, married John II of Alençon in 1424. Isabella's body was interred in Blois, in the abbey of St Laumer, where it was later discovered in 1624, curiously wrapped in bands of linen plated over with quicksilver. It was then transferred to the church of the Celestines in Paris, France.


 

14 September

14 September 1495

Elizabeth Tudor died


Elizabeth was the second daughter & fourth child of king Henry VII of England & Elizabeth of York, & sister to Henry VIII.


Elizabeth died at Eltham Palace in Kent on 14 September 1495 at the age of three years & two months. She was brought from Eltham in state & buried on the north side of the Chapel of St. Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey on 27 September. Elizabeth was the first of four of Henry and Elizabeth's children to die prematurely & they were devastated by their loss. Her funeral cost a large sum of £318 (£155,479.74 in today's money), & the king erected a small tomb to his daughter in the abbey made from Purbeck & black marble. On top of the monument is a finely polished slab of black Lydian, upon which were placed inscriptions to Elizabeth & her effigy of copper gilt, both of which have now disappeared with time. The Latin from the inscription can be translated:


Elizabeth, second child of Henry the Seventh King of England, France & Ireland & of the most serene lady Queen Elizabeth his consort, who was born on the second day of the month of July in the year of Our Lord 1492, & died on the 14th day of the month of September in the year of Our Lord 1495, upon whose soul may God have mercy. Amen.


The plate at the feet of Elizabeth's effigy is translated as:


Hereafter Death has a royal offspring in this tomb viz. the young & noble Elizabeth daughter of that illustrious prince, Henry the Seventh, who swayed the sceptre of two kingdoms, Attrapos, the most severe messenger of Death, snatched her away but may she have eternal life in Heaven.


Portrait of the Royal Tudors. At left, Henry VII, with Prince Arthur behind him, then Prince Henry (later Henry VIII), and Prince Edmund, who did not survive early childhood. To the right is Elizabeth of York, with Princess Margaret, then Princess Elizabeth who didn't survive childhood, Princess Mary, and Princess Katherine, who died shortly after her birth.

Portrait of the Royal Tudors. At left, Henry VII, with Prince Arthur behind him, then Prince Henry (later Henry VIII), & Prince Edmund, who did not survive early childhood. To the right is Elizabeth of York, with Princess Margaret, then Princess Elizabeth who didn't survive childhood, Princess Mary, & Princess Katherine, who died shortly after her birth.


 

15 September


15 September 1984

Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex was born


As the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, & Diana, Princess of Wales, he is sixth in the line of succession to the British throne. Born in St Mary's Hospital, London, Harry was educated at Wetherby School, Ludgrove School, & Eton College. He spent parts of his gap year in Australia & Lesotho, then underwent officer training at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He was commissioned as a cornet into the Blues and Royals, serving temporarily with his brother William & completed training as a troop leader. In 2007–2008, he served for over ten weeks in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–2013 with the Army Air Corps. In June 2015, he resigned from the army.


Harry launched the Invictus Games in 2014 & remains the patron of its foundation. He also gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust & Walking With The Wounded. To encourage people to open up about their mental health issues, Harry, alongside the Duke & Duchess of Cambridge, initiated the mental health awareness campaign "Heads Together" in April 2016.


In 2018, Harry was made Duke of Sussex prior to his wedding to American actress Meghan Markle. In January 2020, the couple stepped down as senior members of the royal family & moved to the Duchess's native Southern California. In October 2020, they launched Archewell Inc., an American public organisation that focuses on non-profit activities & creative media ventures. They have two children, Prince Archie & Princess Lilibet Mountbatten-Windsor.


 

16 September

King James II of England

16 September 1701

The deposed & exiled King James II & VII died


James II & VII (born. 14 October 1633) was King of England & Ireland as James II & King of Scotland as James VII,& from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.


He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland & Ireland; his reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it also involved the principles of absolutism & divine right of kings, & his deposition ended a century of political & civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England, Ireland & Scotland from his elder brother Charles II with widespread support in all three countries, largely based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general & when the English & Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree; it was a political principle, rather than a religious one, that ultimately led to his removal.


In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the first on 10 June was the birth of James's son & heir James Francis Edward, threatening to create a Roman Catholic dynasty & excluding his Anglican daughter Mary & her Protestant husband William of Orange. The second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel; this was viewed as an assault on the Church of England & their acquittal on 30 June destroyed his political authority in England. Anti-Catholic riots in England & Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war. Leading members of the English political class invited William of Orange to assume the English throne; after he landed in Brixham on 5 November 1688, James's army deserted, & he went into exile in France on 23 December. In February 1689, a special Convention Parliament held that the king had "vacated" the English throne & installed William & Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms, but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed that of England by finding that James had "forfeited" the throne & offered it to William & Mary. After his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France, where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV.


Children;


By Anne Hyde (b. 12 March 1637 – d. 31 March 1671);


  • Charles, Duke of Cambridge (22 October 1660 - 5 May 1661)

  • Mary II (30 April 1662 - 28 December 1694)

  • James, Duke of Cambridge (11 or 12 July 1663 - 20 June 1667)

  • Anne (6 February 1665 - 1 August 1714)

  • Charles, Duke of Kendal (4 July 1666 - 22 May 1667)

  • Edgar, Duke of Cambridge (14 September 1667 - 8 June 1671)

  • Henrietta (13 January 1669 - 15 November 1669)

  • Catherine (9 February 1671 - 5 December 1671)


By Mary of Modena (b. 5 October 1658 – d. 7 May 1718);


  • Unnamed child (March or May 1674), miscarriage

  • Catherine Laura (10 January 1675 - 3 October 1675), died of convulsions.

  • Unnamed child (October 1675), stillborn

  • Isabel (or Isabella) (28 August 1676 - 2 or 4 March 1681), buried in Westminster Abbey on 4 March as "The Lady Isabella, daughter to the Duke of York"

  • Charles, Duke of Cambridge (7 November 1677 - 12 December 1677), died of smallpox.

  • Elizabeth (c. 1678)

  • Unnamed child (February 1681), stillborn

  • Charlotte Maria (16 August 1682 - 16 October 1682), died of convulsions & buried in Westminster Abbey as "The Lady Charlotte-Marie, daughter to the Duke of York"

  • Unnamed child (October 1683), stillborn

  • Unnamed child (May 1684), miscarriage

  • James, Prince of Wales "the Old Pretender" (10 June 1688 - 1 January 1766)

  • Louisa Maria Teresa (28 June 1692 - 18 April 1712)


By his mistresses;


By Arabella Churchill;


  • Henrietta FitzJames (1667 - 3 April 1730)

  • James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick (21 August 1670 - 12 June 1734)

  • Henry FitzJames, 1st Duke of Albemarle (August 1673 - December 1702)

  • Arabella FitzJames (1674 - 7 November 1704)


By Catherine Sedley;


  • Catherine Darnley (c. 1681 - 13 March 1743), alleged daughter.

  • James Darnley (1684 - 22 April 1685).

  • Charles Darnley (died young).


 



 

Thank you for reading


Look out for part two of September coming soon.


 

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