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Kings and Queens of England 1066-1707

Updated: Mar 2, 2023


Kings and Queen of England 1066-1707 blog header. Richard III, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, Queen Anne

In the year of 1066, several rival claimants to the English throne emerged. Among them were Harold Godwinson (recognised as king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor), Harald Hardrada (King of Norway who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut) & Duke William II of Normandy (first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor). Harald & William both invaded separately in 1066. Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion by Hardrada, but ultimately lost the throne of England in the Norman conquest of England.


After the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from Winchester to London. Following the death of Harold Godwinson at Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot elected as king Edgar Ætheling, the son of Edward the Exile & grandson of Edmund Ironside. The young monarch was unable to resist the invaders & was never crowned. William was crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day 1066, in Westminster Abbey, & is today known as William the Conqueror.


William the Conqueror, king of England

William the Conqueror


Reign: King of England - 25 December 1066 – 9 September 1087

Coronation: 25 December 1066, Westminster Abbey.


Born: about 1028, Falaise, Duchy of Normandy.


Parents: Robert the Magnificent (1000 – 1035), Duke of Normandy & Herleva of Falaise. Robert the Magnificent (22 June 1000 – 1–3 July 1035) was the duke of Normandy from 1027 until his death in 1035. Herleva's background & the circumstances of William's birth are shrouded in mystery. The written evidence dates from a generation or two later, & is not entirely consistent


House of: Normandy.


Married: Matilda of Flanders in 1051/52. Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 – 2 November 1083). Matilda was born into the House of Flanders, the second daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders & Adela of France.


They had at least nine children. The birth order of the sons is clear, but no source gives the relative order of birth of the daughters.

  1. Robert Curthouse (b. between 1051 & 1054, d. 1134. Duke of Normandy, married Sybilla, daughter of Geoffrey, Count of Conversano.

  2. Richard (b.1056, d. abt 1075).

  3. William (1056 & 1060, d. 2 August 1100). King of England.

  4. Henry (1068, d. 1 December 1135). King of England, married Edith, daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland. His 2nd wife was Adeliza of Louvain.

  5. Adeliza (or Adelida, Adelaide) (d. bef. 1113), reportedly betrothed to Harold Godwinson, probably a nun of Saint Léger at Préaux.

  6. Cecilia (or Cecily) (1066-1127), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen.

  7. Matilda (1061 - c.1086).

  8. Constance (d.1090), married Alan IV, Duke of Brittany.

  9. Adela (d.1137), married Stephen, Count of Blois.

  10. (Possibly) Agatha, the betrothed of Alfonso VI of León & Castile


William I died: 9 September 1087, Priory of Saint Gervase, Rouen, Duchy of Normandy.


Burial: Saint-Étienne de Caen, Normandy.


Successor: William II (son)


William the Conqueror family tree


 

William II, king of England

William II


Reign: King of England 26 September 1087 – 2 August 1100.


William is commonly referred to as William Rufus (Rufus being Latin for "the Red"), perhaps because of his ruddy appearance or, more likely, due to having red hair as a child that grew out in later life.


Coronation: 26 September 1087, Westminster Abbey.


Born: c. 1056, Normandy, France.


Parents: William the Conqueror & Matilda of Flanders.


House of: Normandy.


Never married, no children.


Died: 2 August 1100, New Forest, Hampshire. He died after being hit by an arrow while hunting, under circumstances that remain unclear. Circumstantial evidence in the behaviour of those around him raises strong, but unproven, suspicions of murder. The king's body was abandoned by the nobles at the place where he fell. A peasant later found it. William's younger brother, Henry, rushed off to Winchester to secure the royal treasury, then to London, where he was crowned within days.


Burial: Winchester Cathedral.


Successor: Henry I (brother).


 

Henry I, king of England

Henry I


Reign: King of England - 5 August 1100 – 1 December 1135.


Coronation: 5 August 1100, Westminster Abbey.


Born: c. 1068, Possibly Selby, Yorkshire.


Parents: William the Conqueror & Matilda of Flanders.


House of: Normandy.


Marriages & children.


(1.) Matilda of Scotland 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey. Matilda of Scotland (originally christened Edith, 1080 – 1 May 1118), was also known as Good Queen Maud or Matilda of Blessed Memory. Her parents were King Malcolm III & Margaret of Wessex, making her descendant from both the Scottish & the Anglo-Saxon royal family since she was the great-granddaughter of Edmund Ironside & henceforth descended from Alfred the Great.


Children,


  1. Matilda (c. 7 February 1102 – 10 September 1167), she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, & later became Empress Matilda.

  2. William Adelin (5 August 1103 – 25 November 1120), died in the White Ship tragedy of 25 November 1120.

  3. possibly had a short-lived son, Richard.

(2.) Henry married Adeliza of Louvain on 24 January 1121., they had no children. Adeliza of Louvain, sometimes known in England as Adelicia of Louvain, also called Adela & Aleidis; (c. 1103 – March/April 1151). Adeliza's father was Godfrey I, Count of Louvain, Landgrave of Brabant, & Duke of Lower Lotharingia. Her mother was Ida of Chiny. Adeliza was a descendant of Charlemagne.

Henry also had at least 9 illegitimate sons & 15 illegitimate daughters by his many mistresses.


Henry I died: 1 December 1135, Saint-Denis-en-Lyons, Normandy, France.

Burial: Reading Abbey.


Successor: Stephen of Blois (nephew)




 

Stephen, king of England

King Stephen


Reign: King of England 22 December 1135 – 25 October 1154.


Coronation: 22 December 1135, Westminster Abbey.


Born: 1092 or 1096, Blois, France.


Parents: Stephen Henry (c. 1045 – 19 May 1102), Count of Blois & Count of Chartres & Adela of Normandy, of Blois, or of England (c. 1067 – 8 March 1137), also known as Saint Adela in Roman Catholicism.

House of: Blois.


Married: Matilda I, Countess of Boulogne (c.1105 – 3 May 1152) in 1125. Matilda was the daughter of Count Eustace III of Boulogne & Mary of Scotland, the daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland & Saint Margaret of Scotland. Through her maternal grandmother, Matilda was descended from the Anglo-Saxon kings of England.


Children:


  1. Baldwin (died in or before 1135).

  2. Matilda (died before 1141), married in infancy to Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan.

  3. Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne (c. 1130 – 1153), ruled Boulogne 1146–1153.

  4. William I, Count of Boulogne (c. 1135 – 1159), ruled Boulogne 1153–1159.

  5. Marie I, Countess of Boulogne (c. 1136 – 1182), ruled Boulogne 1159–1182.


Died: 25 October 1154, Dover.


Burial: Faversham Abbey, Kent.


Successor: Henry II (1st cousin, 1x removed).


 

Henry II, king of England

Henry II


Reign: King of England 19 December 1154 – 6 July 1189.


Coronation: 19 December 1154, Westminster Abbey.


Henry II was also Duke of Normandy; Count of Anjou & Maine upon the death of his father; Duke of Aquitaine; Count of Nantes by treaty in 1185. Before he was 40, he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland & the western half of France; an area that was later called the Angevin Empire.

Born: 5 March 1133, Le Mans, Maine, France.


Parents: Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou & Empress Matilda. Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151), called the Handsome, the Fair or Plantagenet, was the count of Anjou, Touraine & Maine by inheritance from 1129, & also the duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. The name "Plantagenet" was taken from Geoffrey's epithet. Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 1102 – 10 September 1167) was the daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. The emperor died in 1125 & she married Geoffrey Plantagenet in 1128.


House of: Plantagenet/Angevin.


Married: Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122 – 1 April 1204). Eleanor was the oldest of three children of William X, Duke of Aquitaine & Aenor de Châtellerault. Eleanor was actually Queen of France from 1137 to 1152 as the consort of King Louis VII, but the marriage was annulled in 1152 & she married Henry II in 1152, becoming the Queen of England.


Children;


  1. William IX, Count of Poitiers (17 August 1153 – 2 December 1156)

  2. Henry the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183). Married Margaret of France, Queen of England & Hungary.

  3. Matilda of England, also called Maud; 6 January 1156 – 28 June 1189). Married Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony.

  4. Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199). Married Berengaria of Navarre.

  5. Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany (23 September 1158 – 19 August 1186). Married Constance, the daughter of Duke Conan IV by his wife, Margaret of Huntingdon, a sister of the Scottish kings Malcolm IV & William I.

  6. Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile (c.1161 – 31 October 1214). Married Alfonso VIII of Castile.

  7. Joan of England, Queen of Sicily (October 1165 – 4 September 1199). Married William II of Sicily & later Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse,

  8. John, King of England (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216). Married Isabella, Countess of Gloucester & later Isabella of Angoulême

  9. William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (c. 1176 – 7 March 1226) ("Long Sword", Latinised to de Longa Spatha). Married Ela of Salisbury, 3rd Countess of Salisbury.

Henry II died: 6 July 1189, Chinon Castle, Chinon, Touraine, France.


Burial: Fontevraud Abbey, Anjou, France.


Successor: Richard I (son)



 

Richard the Lionheart, king of England

Richard I


Reign: King of England - 3 September 1189 – 6 April 1199.


Coronation: 3 September 1189, Westminster Abbey.


Richard I also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine & Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, & Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, & Nantes, & was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. Richard is known as Richard Cœur de Lion (Norman French: Le quor de lion) or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader & warrior. Richard was an important Christian commander during the Third Crusade.


Born: 8 September 1157, Beaumont Palace, Oxford,.


Parents: Henry II & Eleanor of Aquitaine.


House of: Plantagenet/Angevin.


Married: Berengaria of Navarre (c. 1165–1170 – 23 December 1230). She was the eldest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre & Sancha of Castile. No children.


Died: 6 April 1199, Châlus, Duchy of Aquitaine.


Burial: Fontevraud Abbey, Anjou, France


Successor: John (brother)



 

King John of England

King John


Reign: King of England - 27 May 1199 – 19 October 1216.


Coronation: 27 May 1199, Westminster Abbey.


He ruled as Lord of Ireland: May 1177 – 19 October 1216. He lost the Duchy of Normandy & most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire.

Born: 24 December 1166, Beaumont Palace, Oxford.

Parents: Henry II & Eleanor of Aquitaine.


House of: Plantagenet/Angevin.


Married: (1.) Isabella, Countess of Gloucester (m. 1189; ann. 1199). Isabella was the daughter of William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, & his wife Hawise. They had no children.

Married: (2.) Isabella, Countess of Angoulême (m. 1200).


Children by Isabella,


  1. Henry III, King of England (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272).

  2. Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272). He was the nominal Count of Poitou (1225–1243), Earl of Cornwall (from 1225) & King of the Romans (from 1257).

  3. Joan of England, Queen of Scotland (22 July 1210 – 4 March 1238). Married Alexander II of Scotland in 1221.

  4. Isabella of England (1214 – 1 December 1241). She was Holy Roman Empress & Queen of Sicily & Germany from 1235 until her death as the 3rd wife of Emperor Frederick II.

  5. Eleanor of England, Countess of Leicester & Pembroke (1215 – 13 April 1275). Married twice, William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (m. 1224; d. 1231) & Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (m. 1238; d. 1265)


John had at least five children with mistresses during his first marriage, & two of those mistresses are known to have been noblewomen.


  • Richard FitzRoy (c. 1190 – June 1246) whose mother was Adela, John's first cousin.

  • Joan, Lady of Wales (c. 1191 – February 1237) also known by her Welsh name of Siwan. She was the wife of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales (initially King of Gwynedd), effective ruler of all of Wales.

Died: 19 October 1216, Newark Castle, Newark-on-Trent.

Burial: Worcester Cathedral.


Successor: Henry III (son).




 

Henry III, king of England

Henry III


Reign: King of England - 28 October 1216 – 16 November 1272.


Coronation: 28 October 1216, Gloucester Cathedral, 17 May 1220, Westminster Abbey.


Born: 1 October 1207, Winchester Castle.


Parents: King John & Isabella of Angoulême

House of: Plantagenet.


Married: Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 – 24/25 June 1291) in 1236. She was a French noblewoman & daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence & Beatrice of Savoy.


Children;

  1. Edward I (b. 17/18 June 1239 – d. 7 July 1307).

  2. Margaret of England (b. 29 September 1240 – d. 26 February 1275), she was Queen of Scots by marriage to King Alexander III (4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286)

  3. Beatrice of England (b. 25 June 1242 – d. 24 March 1275). Married John II, Duke of Brittany.

  4. Edmund 'Crouchback' (16 January 1245 – d. 5 June 1296). He was the Earl of Lancaster, Leicester, & Derby.

  5. Katherine of England (b. 25 November 1253 – d. 3 May 1257).


Died: 16 November 1272, Westminster.


Burial: Westminster Abbey.

Successor: Edward I (son).



 

Edward I, king of England

Edward I


Reign: King of England - 20 November 1272 – 7 July 1307.


Coronation: 19 August 1274, Westminster Abbey.


Edward I was also known as Edward Longshanks. Edward I was a tall man for his era, at 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m), hence the nickname "Longshanks".


Born: 17/18 June 1239, Palace of Westminster.

Parents: King Henry III & Eleanor of Provence.

House of: Plantagenet.

Married (1.): Eleanor of Castile in 1254. Eleanor (1241 – 28 November 1290), was the daughter of Ferdinand III of Castile & Joan, Countess of Ponthieu.


Children;


  1. A daughter (May 1255 – 29 May 1255), stillborn or died shortly after birth.

  2. Katherine (before 17 June 1264 – 5 September 1264).

  3. Joanna (Summer or January 1265 – before 7 September 1265).

  4. John (13 July 1266 – 3 August 1271).

  5. Henry (6 May 1268 – 14 October 1274).

  6. Eleanor (c. 18 June 1269 – 19 August 1298), in 1293 she married Henry III, Count of Bar.

  7. Juliana (after May 1271 – 5 September 1271), born & died while Edward & Eleanor were in Acre.

  8. Joan of Acre (1272 – 23 April 1307), married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, who died in 1295, & (2) in 1297 Ralph de Monthermer.

  9. Alphonso, Earl of Chester (24 November 1273 – 19 August 1284).

  10. Margaret (c.15 March 1275 – after 11 March 1333), married John II of Brabant in 1290.

  11. Berengaria (May 1276 – between 7 June 1277 & 1278).

  12. Daughter (December 1277 – January 1278)

  13. Mary of Woodstock (11 March 1278– before 8 July 1332), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury.

  14. Son (1280/81 – 1280/81), little evidence exists for this child.

  15. Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (c. 7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316), married (1) in 1297 John I, Count of Holland, (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.

  16. Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), married Isabella of France.


Married (2.): Margaret of France (c. 1279 – 14 February 1318) in 1299, the daughter of Philip III of France & Maria of Brabant.


Children by Margaret;


  1. Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1 June 1300 – 4 August 1338). Married (1) Alice Hales; (2) Mary Brewes.

  2. Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (5 August 1301 – 19 March 1330), married Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell.

  3. Eleanor (6 May 1306 – 1310).

Died: 7 July 1307, Burgh by Sands, Cumberland.


Burial: 27 October 1307, Westminster Abbey.


Successor: Edward II (son).




 

Edward II, king of England

Edward II


Reign: King of England - 7 July 1307 – 13/25 January 1327.


Coronation: 25 February 1308, Westminster Abbey


Born: 25 April 1284, Caernarfon Castle, Gwynedd, Wales.


Parents: King Edward I & Eleanor of Castile


House of: Plantagenet


Married: Isabella of France (c. 1295 – 22 August 1358) in 1308. Sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, Isabella was the youngest surviving child & only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France & Joan I of Navarre.


Children;


  1. Edward III of England (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377).

  2. John of Eltham (15 August 1316 – 13 September 1336).

  3. Eleanor of Woodstock (18 June 1318 – 22 April 1355). Married Reinoud II of Guelders in May 1332.

  4. Joan of the Tower (5 July 1321 – 7 September 1362). Married David II of Scotland on 17 July 1328 & became Queen of Scots.


Died: 21 September 1327, Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire. The king was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his 14-year-old son, Edward III, & he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September, probably murdered on the orders of the new regime.


Burial: 20 December 1327, Gloucester Cathedral.


Successor: Edward III (son).



 

Edward III, king of England

Edward III


Reign: King of England: 25 January 1327 – 21 June 1377.


Coronation: 1 February 1327.


Born: 13 November 1312, Windsor Castle.


Parents: King Edward II & Isabella of France.


House of: Plantagenet


Married: Philippa of Hainault ​in 1328. Philippa (24 June 1310 (or 1315) – 15 August 1369) was the daughter of Count Willam of Hainaut & French Princess Joan of Valois.

Children,

  1. Edward of Woodstock, known to history as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376). Regarded by his English contemporaries as one of the greatest knights of his age. Married Joan, Countess of Kent (29 September 1326 – 7 August 1385), known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent.

  2. Isabella of England (16 June 1332 – c. April 1379). married Enguerrand VII de Coucy, 1st Earl of Bedford.

  3. Joan of England (19 December 1333 or 28 January 1334 – 1 July 1348). died of the plague in Bordeaux, on her way to marry Peter of Castile.

  4. William of Hatfield (16 February 1337 - bef. 3 March 1337).

  5. Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, (29 November 1338 – 17 October 1368). He grew to be nearly seven feet in height & had an athletic build. He married twice; Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster ​(m. 1352; died 1363)​, then Violante Visconti ​(m. 1368).

  6. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399). Married three times; (1) Blanche of Lancaster (m. 1359, d. 1368), (2.) Constance of Castile (m. 1371, d. 1394), (3.) Katherine Swynford (m. 1396).

  7. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402). Married Isabella of Castile in 1372, then Lady Joan Holland in 1393.

  8. Blanche (born March 1342, died shortly after birth)

  9. Mary of Waltham (10 October 1344 – September 1361). Married John IV, Duke of Brittany in 1361.

  10. Margaret of England (20 July 1346 – October/December 1361). Married John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke in 1359.

  11. Thomas of Windsor (Summer 1347 - September 1348.

  12. William of Windsor (before 24 June 1348 - bef. 5 September 1348).

  13. Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397). Married Eleanor de Bohun (c. 1366 – 3 October 1399) in 1376.


Edward III died: 21 June 1377, Sheen Palace, Richmond.


Burial: 5 July 1377, Westminster Abbey.


Successor: Richard II (Grandson).




 

Richard II, king of England

Signature of Richard II

Richard II


Reign: King of England - 22 June 1377 – 29 September 1399.


Coronation: 16 July 1377, Westminster Abbey.

Born: Richard of Bordeaux 6 January 1367, Bordeaux, Aquitaine.


Parents: Edward the Black Prince & Joan of Kent.


House of: Plantagenet

Marriages:


(1.) Anne of Bohemia ​in 1382. ​Anne of Bohemia (11 May 1366 – 7 June 1394), was the eldest daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor & King of Bohemia, & Elizabeth of Pomerania. Her death was believed to have been caused by plague. No children.


(2.) Isabella of Valois ​in 1396. Isabella (9 November 1389 – 13 September 1409) was the daughter of Charles VI of France & Isabeau of Bavaria. No children.


Died: c. 14 February 1400, Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire.


Burial: 6 March 1400, Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, then reburied 1413 at Westminster Abbey.


Successor: Henry IV (1st cousin).


 

Henry IV, king of England

Signature of Henry IV

Henry IV


Reign: King of England - 30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413.


Coronation: 13 October 1399.


He was the 1st English ruler since the Norman Conquest, over three hundred years prior, whose mother tongue was English rather than French.


Born: c. 15 April 1367, Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire.


Parents: John of Gaunt & Blanche of Lancaster. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was the 4th child of Edward III & Philippa of Hainault. Blanche of Lancaster (25 March 1342 – 12 September 1368) was the daughter of the kingdom's wealthiest & most powerful peer, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster.


House of: Lancaster (Plantagenet)


Married:

(1.) Mary de Bohun in 1381. Mary (c. 1369/70 – 4 June 1394) was the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford by his wife Joan FitzAlan.

Children;


  1. Henry V, King of England (1386–1422)

  2. Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence (1387–1421). Married Margaret Holland in 1411.

  3. John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford (1389–1435). Married (1.) Anne of Burgundy in 1423; she died in 1432). (2.) Jacquetta of Luxembourg in 1433. Jacquetta remarried after John died to Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, their daughter Elizabeth Woodville became Queen of England as the wife of Edward IV.

  4. Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester (1390–1447). Married; (1.) Jacqueline of Hainaut in 1422, annulled in 1428). (2.) Eleanor Cobham in 1428–1431, annulled. c. 1441). Eleanor was a convicted sorceress, her imprisonment for treasonable necromancy in 1441 was a cause célèbre.

  5. Blanche of England (1392–1409). Married Louis III, Elector Palatine in 1402.

  6. Philippa of England (1394–1430). Married Eric of Pomerania, King of Denmark, Norway & Sweden in 1406.


Married (2); Joan of Navarre in 1403). Joan was a daughter of King Charles II of Navarre & Joan of France. No children.

Henry IV died: 20 March 1413, Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster.


Burial: Canterbury Cathedral.


Successor: Henry V (son).


 

Henry V, king of England

Signature of Henry V

Henry V


Reign: King of England - 21 March 1413 – 31 August 1422.


Coronation: 9 April 1413, Westminster Abbey.


Born: 16 September 1386, Monmouth Castle, Wales.


Parents: Henry IV & Mary de Bohun.

House of: Lancaster (Plantagenet)

Married: Catherine of Valois in 1420. Catherine (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the youngest daughter of King Charles VI of France & Isabeau of Bavaria.


Children;

  1. Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471)

Henry V died: 31 August 1422, Château de Vincennes, France.

Burial: 7 November 1422, Westminster Abbey.

Successor: Henry VI (son).



 

Henry VI, king of England

Signature of Henry VI

Henry VI


Reign: King of England 1st reign: 1 September 1422 – 4 March 1461. 2nd reign: 3 October 1470 – 11 April 1471.


Coronation: 6 November 1429, Westminster Abbey.


He was also the disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.


Born: 6 December 1421, Windsor Castle.


Parents: Henry V & Catherine of Valois.

House of: Lancaster (Plantagenet)

Married: Margaret of Anjou ​in 1445. Margaret of Anjou (23 March 1430 – 25 August 1482) was born in the Duchy of Lorraine into the House of Valois-Anjou, Margaret was the 2nd eldest daughter of René, King of Naples, & Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine.


Children;


  1. Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales (13 October 1453 – 4 May 1471). He was killed aged 17 at the Battle of Tewkesbury, making him the only heir apparent to the English throne to die in battle.

Died: 21 May 1471. Henry died in the Tower of London during the night of 21 May, possibly killed on the orders of King Edward IV.


Burial: 12 August 1484, St George's Chapel, Windsor.

Successor: Edward IV.




 

Edward IV, king of England

Edward IV signature

Edward IV


Reign: King of England - 1st reign: 4 March 1461 – 3 October 1470. 2nd reign: 11 April 1471 – 9 April 1483.


Coronation: 28 June 1461, Westminster Abbey.


Born: 28 April 1442, Rouen, Normandy, France.


Parents: Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) & Cecily Neville, Duchess of York (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495). Richard was a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, & a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. Cecily Neville was the youngest of the 22 children of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, in this case born to his 2nd wife Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland.

House of: York (Plantagenet)


Married: Elizabeth Woodville in 1464. Elizabeth (c. 1437 – 8 June 1492) was the daughter of Sir Richard Woodville & Jacquetta of Luxembourg.


Children;


  1. Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503), Queen consort of England; married Henry VII.

  2. Mary of York (11 August 1467 – 23 May 1482).

  3. Cecily of York (20 March 1469 – 24 August 1507), Viscountess Welles; married John Welles, 1st Viscount Welles, then Thomas Kyme or Keme.

  4. Edward V of England (4 November 1470 – c. 1483); one of the Princes in the Tower; disappeared, assumed murdered prior to his coronation, c. 1483.

  5. Margaret of York (10 April 1472 – 11 December 1472).

  6. Richard, Duke of York (17 August 1473 – c. 1483); one of the Princes in the Tower; disappeared, assumed murdered c. 1483.

  7. Anne of York (2 November 1475 – 23 November 1511), Lady Howard; married Thomas Howard (later 3rd Duke of Norfolk).

  8. George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Bedford (March 1477 – March 1479).

  9. Catherine of York (14 August 1479 – 15 November 1527), Countess of Devon; married William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon.

  10. Bridget of York (10 November 1480 – 1507), nun at Dartford Priory.

Edward IV died: 9 April 1483, Westminster, Middlesex.

Burial: 18 April 1483, St George's Chapel, Windsor.


Successor: Edward V (son).




 

Edward V, king of England

Edward V signature

Edward V


Reign: King of England - 9 April 1483 – 25 June 1483


Coronation: never crowned.


Born: 2 November 1470, Westminster.


Parents: Edward IV & Elizabeth Woodville.

House of: York (Plantagenet)


Never married, no children.


Died: Reputedly Bloody Tower, Tower of London (presumed c. June/July 1483)


Burial: unknown.


Successor: Richard III (uncle).


 

Richard III, king of England

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Richard III


Reign: King of England - 26 June 1483 – 22 August 1485.


Coronation: 6 July 1483.


Born: 2 October 1452, Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire.


Parents: Richard, Duke of York & Cecily Neville.


House of: York (Plantagenet).


Married: Anne Neville in 1472. Anne Neville (11 June 1456 – 16 March 1485) was the younger of the two daughters & co-heiresses of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (the "Kingmaker"). She became Princess of Wales as the wife of Edward of Westminster (only son & heir apparent of King Henry VI) & then Queen of England as the wife of King Richard III.

Children;

  • Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales (December 1473 or 1476 – 9 April 1484). The reasons for his sudden death are unknown.

Died: 22 August 1485 (aged 32). His defeat & death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England.


Burial: 25 August 1485, Greyfriars, Leicester, then 26 March 2015, Leicester Cathedral.


Successor: Henry Tudor (Henry VII).



 

Henry VII, king of England

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Henry VII


Reign: King of England - 22 August 1485 - 21 April 1509.

Coronation: 30 October 1485. Westminster Abbey

Born: 28 January 1457, Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales.


Parents: Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (c. 1430 – 3 November 1456) & Lady Margaret Beaufort (31 May 1441/43 – 29 June 1509). Born to Owen Tudor & the dowager queen Catherine of Valois, Edmund was half-brother to Henry VI of England. Lady Margaret Beaufort was a descendant of King Edward III, Lady Margaret passed a disputed claim to the English throne to her son, Henry Tudor.


House of: Tudor.

Married: Elizabeth of York in 1486. Elizabeth (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was the eldest child of King Edward IV & Elizabeth Woodville.

Children;

  1. Arthur, Prince of Wales (20 September 1486 – 2 April 1502). Married Katharine of Aragon in 1501. Arthur died on 2 April 1502 at Ludlow, six months short of his 16th birthday. Katherine would later marry his brother Henry.

  2. Margaret, Queen of Scotland (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541). Married king James IV of Scotland. Among their three children were James IV of Scotland.

  3. Henry VIII, King of England (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547). Married six times.

  4. Elizabeth (2 July 1492 – 14 September 1495).

  5. Mary, Queen of France (18 March 1496 – 25 June 1533). Mary married Louis XII of France in 1514, he died just months later in 1515, then married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.

  6. Edward (1498? – 1499), Possibly confused with Edmund.

  7. Edmund (1499 – 19 June 1500).

  8. Catherine (born & died 1503).


Henry VII died: 21 April 1509, Richmond Palace, Surrey.


Burial: 11 May 1509, Westminster Abbey.

Successor: Henry VIII (son).




 

Henry VIII, king of England

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Henry VIII


Reign: King of England from 22 April 1509 - 28 January 1547.


Coronation: 24 June 1509.


Born: Henry Tudor, 28 June 1491, Palace of Placentia, Greenwich.

Parents: Henry VII & Elizabeth of York.

House of: Tudor.


King Henry VIII magnetic bookmark

Marriages & children,

(1.) Katherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), the daughter of Isabella I of Castile & Ferdinand II of Aragon. They married on 11 June 1509, Palace of Placentia. The marriage was annulled on 23 May 1533.


Children,


  1. Stillborn daughter 31 January 1510.

  2. Henry, Duke of Cornwall (1 January 1511 - 22 February 1511).

  3. Unnamed son (17 September 1513) He either as stillborn or died shortly after birth.

  4. Stillborn son 8 January 1515.

  5. Queen Mary I (18 February 1516 - 17 November 1558), She married Philip II of Spain in 1554.

  6. Unnamed daughter (10 November 1518) stillbirth in the 8th month of pregnancy or lived at least one week.

(2.) Anne Boleyn (c. 1501 – 19 May 1536). Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, & his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard. Henry married Anne on 25 January 1533, Westminster Abbey. The marriage was annulled on 17 May 1536. Anne was beheaded 19 May 1536 at the Tower of London, on charges of high treason.

Children;


  1. Queen Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 - 24 March 1603).

  2. Unnamed son (Christmas, 1534), miscarriage or false pregnancy.

  3. Miscarried son 1535.

  4. Miscarriage (29 January 1536), believed male, in the fourth month of pregnancy.

(3.) Jane Seymour, (c. 1508 – 24 October 1537). Jane was the daughter of Sir John Seymour & Margery Wentworth. Henry married Jane on 30 May 1536, at the Palace of Whitehall. Seymour died on 24 October 1537, due to complications twelve days after giving birth. Children by Jane Seymour,


  • King Edward VI (12 October 1537 - 6 July 1553).

(4.) Anne of Cleves (1515 – 16 July 1557). Anne was the second daughter of John III of the House of La Marck, Duke of Jülich jure uxoris, Cleves, Berg jure uxoris, Count of Mark, also known as de la Marck & Ravensberg jure uxoris (often referred to as Duke of Cleves) & Maria, Duchess of Jülich-Berg. Henry married Anne on 6 January 1540, Palace of Placentia. Marriage annulled on 9 July 1540. No children.

(5.) Catherine Howard, (c. 1521 – 13 February 1542). She was the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard & Joyce Culpeper. Henry married Catherine on 28 July 1540, Oatlands. The marriage was ended with Howard's arrest on 23 November 1541 on the grounds of treason for committing adultery with her distant cousin Thomas Culpeper. She was beheaded 13 February 1542 at the Tower of London.


(6.) Catherine Parr (c. August 1512 – 5 September 1548). Parr was the eldest child of Sir Thomas Parr, lord of the manor of Kendal in Westmorland, (now Cumbria), & Maud Green. Sir Thomas Parr was a descendant of King Edward III, & the Parrs were a substantial northern family which included many knights. Henry married Catherine Parr on 12 July 1543, Hampton Court Palace Marriage ended with Henry's death on 28 January 1547.

Henry VIII had one 'acknowledged' illegitimate child, Henry Fitzroy (15 June 1519 – 23 July 1536), the son of his mistress Elizabeth Blount, & granted him a dukedom.


Henry VIII died: 28 January 1547, Palace of Whitehall, London.


Burial: 16 February 1547, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Successor: Edward VI (son).



 

Edward VI, king of England

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Edward VI


Reign: King of England - 28 January 1547 – 6 July 1553.

House of: Tudor

Coronation: 20 February 1547.

Born: 12 October 1537, Hampton Court Palace.

Parents: Henry VIII & Jane Seymour.

Never married. No children.


Died: 6 July 1553, Greenwich Palace.

Burial: 8 August 1553, Westminster Abbey.


Successor: Lady Jane Grey (cousin), disputed claim.




 

Lady Jane Grey

Signature of Lady Jane Grey

Lady Jane Grey


Reign: Queen of England - 10 July 1553 – 19 July 1553.

House of: Grey

Coronation: never crowned


Born: 1536 or 1537, Either London or Bradgate Park, Leicestershire.


Parents: Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, 3rd Marquess of Dorset (17 January 1517 – 23 February 1554), & Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk (née Lady Frances Brandon; 16 July 1517 – 20 November 1559), an English noblewoman, the second child & eldest daughter of King Henry VIII's younger sister, Princess Mary, & Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.


Marriage: Lord Guildford Dudley (c. 1535 – 12 February 1554), an English nobleman, in 1553.


Died: 12 February 1554, executed at the Tower of London

Burial: Church of St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London.

Successor: Mary I (cousin).


 

Mary I, Queen of England

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Mary I


Reign: Queen of England - July 1553 – 17 November 1558.


Also, Queen consort of Spain: 16 January 1556 – 17 November 1558.


Coronation: 1 October 1553.


Born: 18 February 1516, Palace of Placentia, Greenwich.


Parents: King Henry VIII & Katharine of Aragon.


House of: Tudor.


Married: Prince Philip of Spain (later Philip II of Spain) at Winchester Cathedral on 25 July 1554. No children from this marriage. Philip II (21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was the son of Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor & Isabella of Portugal,


Died: 17 November 1558, St James's Palace.


Burial: 14 December 1558, Westminster Abbey.

Successor: Elizabeth I (half-sister).




 

Elizabeth I, Queen of England

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Elizabeth I


Reign: 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603.


Coronation: 15 January 1559.

Born: 7 September 1533, Palace of Placentia, Greenwich.

Parents: King Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn.


House of: Tudor


Never married, no children.

Died: 24 March 1603, Richmond Palace, Surrey.


Burial: 28 April 1603, Westminster. Abbey.


Successor: James VI of Scotland (1st-cousin 2x removed).




After the death of Queen Elizabeth I without issue in 1603, King James VI of Scotland inherited the English crown as James I of England, joining the crowns of England & Scotland in personal union. By royal proclamation, James styled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was actually created until 1707, when England & Scotland united during the reign of Queen Anne to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain, with a single British parliament sitting at Westminster. This marked the end of the Kingdom of England as a sovereign state.



 

James VI & I, king of England and Scotland

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James VI & I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 & King of England & Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish & English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland & England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciaries, & laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union.

Reign: King of England & Ireland -24 March 1603 – 27 March 1625.

Coronation: 25 July 1603.

Reign: King of Scotland: 24 July 1567 – 27 March 1625.

Coronation: 29 July 1567.

Born: 19 June 1566, Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh.

Parents: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley & Mary, Queen of Scots. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567) was the second but eldest surviving son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, by his wife Lady Margaret Douglas. Darnley's maternal grandparents were Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, & Lady Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII of England & widow of King James IV of Scotland. Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587) also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication on 24 July 1567. She was the daughter of King James V & his French second wife, Mary of Guise.


House of: Stuart.


Married: Anne of Denmark on 20 August 1589. Anne (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was the daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark & Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow.


Children:

  1. Henry, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612).

  2. Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662). Married 1613, Frederick V, Elector Palatine.

  3. Margaret (24 December 1598 – March 1600).

  4. Charles I, King of England, Scotland & Ireland (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649). Married Henrietta Maria of France in 1625.

  5. Robert, Duke of Kintyre (18 January 1602 – 27 May 1602).

  6. Mary (8 April 1605 – 16 December 1607).

  7. Sophia (June 1607). Died within 48 hours of birth.


Died: 27 March 1625, Theobalds House, Hertfordshire.

Burial: 7 May 1625, Westminster Abbey.

Successor: Charles I (son).




 

Charles I

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Reign: King of England & Ireland - 27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649.


English Coronation: 2 February 1626.


Reign: King of Scotland: 27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649.


Scottish Coronation: 18 June 1633.


Born: 19 November 1600, Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline.

Parents: King James VI & I and Anne of Denmark.


House of: Stuart.


Married: Henrietta Maria of France in 1625. Henrietta Maria (25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was the youngest daughter of Henry IV of France (Henry III of Navarre) & his second wife, Marie de' Medici.

Children:


  1. Charles James, Duke of Cornwall & Rothesay (13 May 1629 - 13 May 1629). Born & died the same day. Buried as "Charles, Prince of Wales".

  2. Charles II (29 May 1630 - 6 February 1685). Married Catherine of Braganza.

  3. Mary, Princess Royal (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660). Married William II, Prince of Orange (1626 – 1650) in 1641. She had one child: William III of England.

  4. James II & VII (14 October 1633 - 6 September 1701) Married (1) Anne Hyde in 1659. Married (2) Mary of Modena in 1673.

  5. Elizabeth (29 December 1635 - 8 September 1650).

  6. Anne (17 March 1637 - 5 November 1640).

  7. Catherine (29 June 1639 - 29 June 1639). Born & died the same day.

  8. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (8 July 1640 - 13 September 1660)

  9. Henrietta (16 June 1644 - 30 June 1670). Married Philip, Duke of Orléans in 1661.


Death: After the English civil war, Charles was tried, convicted, & executed for high treason on 30 January 1649, Whitehall, London.

Burial: 9 February 1649, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.


Successor: Successor: Council of State (de facto) The English Council of State, later also known as the Protector's Privy Council, was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I. Charles's execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power & to make it an offence to proclaim a new King. This in effect abolished the monarchy & the House of Lords.



 

Charles II

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Reign: King of Scotland -30 January 1649 – until his deposition on 3 September 1651.

Scottish Coronation: 1 January 1651.

Born: 29 May 1630, St James's Palace.

Parents: King Charles I & Henrietta Maria of France.


House of: Stuart


After Charles I's execution at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War, the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649. However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, & the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, & Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became the virtual dictator of England, Scotland & Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic & the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, & Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim.


Married: Catherine of Braganza on 30 September 1662. No children from this marriage. Catherine (25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was the daughter of King John IV of Portugal, who became the first king from the House of Braganza in 1640 after overthrowing the 60-year rule of the Spanish Habsburgs over Portugal & restoring the Portuguese throne which had first been created in 1143.

Charles had many mistresses & many illegitimate children, notably James Crofts, later Scott (1649–1685), created Duke of Monmouth (1663) in England & Duke of Buccleuch (1663) in Scotland. Monmouth was born nine months after Lucy Walter & Charles II first met & was acknowledged as his son by Charles II.

Charles II died: 6 February 1685, Whitehall Palace, London.

Burial: 14 February 1685, Westminster Abbey.

Successor: James II & VII (brother)



 

James VII & II

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Reign: King of England, Scotland & Ireland - 6 February 1685 – 23 December 1688.


James was King of England & Ireland as James II, & King of Scotland as James VII.


Coronation: 23 April 1685.


Born: 14 October 1633, St James's Palace.


Parents: King Charles I & Henrietta Maria of France.


House of: Stuart.


Married:


(1.) Anne Hyde in 1660. Anne (12 March 1637 – 31 March 1671) was the daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (1609–74), was an English statesman, lawyer, diplomat & historian who served as chief advisor to Charles I during the First English Civil War, & Lord Chancellor to Charles II from 1660-67. Her mother was Edward's 2nd wife Frances Hyde, Countess of Clarendon, born Frances Aylesbury.


Children;


  1. Charles, Duke of Cambridge (22 October 1660 - 5 May 1661).

  2. Mary II (30 April 1662 - 28 December 1694), married William III, Prince of Orange in 1677.

  3. James, Duke of Cambridge (11 or 12 July 1663 - 20 June 1667).

  4. Anne (6 February 1665 - 1 August 1714), married 1683, Prince George of Denmark in 1683.

  5. Charles, Duke of Kendal (4 July 1666 - 22 May 1667)

  6. Edgar, Duke of Cambridge (14 September 1667 - 8 June 1671)

  7. Henrietta (13 January 1669 - 15 November 1669)

  8. Catherine (9 February 1671 - 5 December 1671)

(2.) Mary of Modena in 1673. Mary of Modena (5 October 1658 – 7 May 1718, was the 2nd (but eldest surviving) child of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena, & Laura Martinozzi.

Children;


  1. Miscarriage 1674.

  2. Catherine Laura (10 January 1675 - 3 October 1675).

  3. Stillborn child October 1675.

  4. The Lady Isabel (or Isabella) (28 August 1676 - 2 or 4 March 1681).

  5. Charles, Duke of Cambridge (7 November 1677 - 12 December 1677).

  6. Elizabeth (c. 1678).

  7. Stillborn child February 1681.

  8. The Lady Charlotte Maria (16 August 1682 - 16 October 1682).

  9. Stillborn child October 1683.

  10. Miscarriage May 1684.

  11. James, Prince of Wales "the Old Pretender" (10 June 1688 - 1 January 1766) married Clementina Sobieska in 1719.

  12. Louisa Maria Teresa (28 June 1692 - 18 April 1712)

James II & VII died: 16 September 1701, Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France.


Burial: Church of the English Benedictines, Paris

Successor: Deposed during the Glorious Revolution by William III (son-in-law) & Mary II daughter).


James was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland & Ireland.



 

Mary II

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Mary II was Queen of England, Scotland, & Ireland, co-reigning with her husband, King William III & II, from 1689 until her death. Popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William & Mary.


Reign: 1689 – 28 December 1694).


Born: 30 April 1662, St James's Palace.

Parents: James II and VII & Anne Hyde.

Married: William III & II on ​4 November 1677, St James's Palace. No children.

Coronation: 11 April 1689, Westminster Abbey.


House of: Stuart.


Died: 28 December 1694, Kensington Palace.


Burial: 5 March 1695, Westminster Abbey.


Successor: William III continued as king until his death in 1702.




 

King William III

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Reign: King of England: Reigned jointly with Mary II, 1689 - 28 December 1694, then alone until his death on 8 March 1702.


Coronation: 11 April 1689


Reign Prince of Orange: 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702


Born: 4 November 1650, Binnenhof, The Hague, Dutch Republic


Parents: William II, Prince of Orange (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650), sove