Kingdoms of England & Scotland
The current royal arms are a combination of the arms of the former kingdoms that make up the United Kingdom, & can be traced back to the first arms of the kings of England & kings of Scots.
Various alterations occurred over the years as the arms of other realms acquired or claimed by the kings were added to the royal arms.
The photos below track the changes in the royal arms from the original arms of King Richard I of England, & William I, King of Scots, through royal history
Kingdom of England
Click picture for more information
Kingdom of Scotland
The Union of the Crowns places England, Ireland & Scotland under one monarch
At the Union creating Great Britain in 1707, arms were adopted for the new kingdom, & again in 1801 at the Union creating the United Kingdom
The Current Royal Family
Members of the British royal family are granted their own personal arms which are based on the Royal Arms.
Only children & grandchildren in the male line of the monarch are entitled to arms in this fashion: the arms of children of the monarch are differenced with a three-point label; grandchildren of the monarch are differenced with a five-point label. An exception is made for the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, who bears a three-point label.
Since 1911, the arms of the Prince of Wales also displays an inescutcheon of the ancient arms of the Principality of Wales.
Queen consorts & the wives of sons of the monarch also have their own personal coat of arms. Normally this will be the arms of their husband impaled with their own personal arms or those of their father, if armigerous. However, the consorts of a Queen regnant are not entitled to use the Royal Arms.
Thus Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh has been granted his own personal arms.
Modern royal consorts
The English royal consorts were the spouses of the reigning monarchs of the Kingdom of England who were not themselves monarchs of England: spouses of some English monarchs who were themselves English monarchs are not listed, comprising Mary I & Philip who reigned together in the 16th century, & William III & Mary II who reigned together in the 17th century. These coat of arms represent these consorts in our royal history.
Most of the consorts are women, & enjoyed titles & honours pertaining to a queen consort; some few are men, whose titles were not consistent, depending upon the circumstances of their spouses' reigns.
The Kingdom of England merged with the Kingdom of Scotland in 1707, to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. There have thus been no consorts of England since that date.
The consorts prior to Isabella of Angoulême have no known coat of arms so are not included in this list.