1 June 1533
Anne Boleyn was crowned queen of England
Anne was crowned queen in a magnificent ceremony at Westminster Abbey with a banquet afterwards. She was the LAST queen consort of England to be crowned separately from her husband. Unlike any other queen consort, Anne was crowned with St Edward's Crown, which had previously been used to crown only a monarch. Historian Alice Hunt suggests that this was done because Anne's pregnancy was visible by then and she was carrying the heir who was presumed to be male.
On the previous day, Anne had taken part in an elaborate procession through the streets of London seated in a litter of "white cloth of gold" that rested on two palfreys clothed to the ground in white damask, while the barons of the Cinque Ports held a canopy of cloth of gold over her head.
In accordance with tradition she wore white, and on her head a gold coronet beneath which her long dark hair hung down freely. Afterwards, the usual banquet in Westminster Hall took place. Henry stood apart & watched his new queen from a distance, allowing her to be the sole focus of attention.
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1 June 1563
The Plague returns to London
In 1563 London experienced its worst episode of plague during the 16th Century. At least 20,136 people in London & surrounding parishes are recorded to have died of plague during this outbreak. Around 24% of London's population died, but the plague affected London's insanitary parishes & neighbourhoods the most.
The City of London in 1563 was overcrowded, unsanitary, & poorly-policed. Queen Elizabeth reigned in her 5th year & her government struggled with a rapidly increasing population. Although sanitation was a major problem, the city had gone over a dozen years without a plague epidemic. That changed in 1563 when plague suddenly erupted in Derby, Leicester, & London with such virulence that sickness spread to English troops garrisoned at Havre.
The first cases of the plague began to appear in June. According to manuscripts by John Stow kept at Lambeth Library, weekly bills of mortality for 1563 show the first 17 recorded plague deaths for the week ending June 12. The Queen began coordinating a government response to the epidemic by communicating orders to her people through the Church. Churchwardens were instructed to tell parishioners staying with those sick with plague not to come to church until several weeks after they die or recover. Strict countermeasures were taken at the local level to combat the epidemic such as painting blue crosses on the houses of the infected & government orders to kill & bury all stray cats & dogs "for the avoidance of plague," with special officers appointed to carry these orders.
Many people believed that plague was caused by inhaling corrupt airs known as "miasmas*." This belief carried on into the Victorian age. In an effort to cleanse London, orders were given by Queen Elizabeth's Council on 9 July that all householders at seven in the evening should make bonfires in the street to consume the ‘corrupt’ air. Cases began to steadily increase over the next few weeks, with plague killing 131 Londoners for the week ending 3 July before sharply increasing to hundreds of deaths per week by 30 July. Tudor physician William Bullein records the contemporary testimony of a beggar witnessing those fleeing the epidemic: "I met with wagons, cartes, & horses full loden with young barnes, for fear of the black Pestilence..." The urban neighbourhoods within London's walls were among the hardest hit by the epidemic of 1563, with the worst afflicted areas being Saint Poulkar's parish, Fleet Ditch's Turnagain lane, & Seacoal lane. Large numbers of rats were attracted to Saint Poulkar's due to the large quantities of fruit merchandise & filth in the. The areas around Fleet river were overcrowded & unsanitary, & plague spread wildly in these localities.
*The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air. The theory held that the origin of epidemics was due to a miasma, emanating from rotting organic matter. In the early 19th century some 'experts' suggested that the theory extended to other conditions as well, e.g. one could become obese by inhaling the odor of food!
The death toll in London soared, & fear of the plague spread to the Royal Court. On August 21, Lord Burleigh drafted Queen Elizabeth's order for the removal of Lady Katherine Grey & the Earl of Hertford from the Tower, out of "great fear that [the plague] may enter into our said Tower." At the end of August nearly 1,000 Londoners per week were dying, & the city was experiencing widespread panic. Elizabeth & the Royal Council decided to avoid the City of London entirely. The Queen moved the Royal Court to Windsor Castle & erected a gallows in the town square, threatening to hang anyone who followed them from London. She banned the transportation of goods into Windsor from London, as she too had a fear of contagion. A pious queen, Elizabeth also wrote to the Archbishop of York to recommend universal prayer & fasting for hastening "remedy & mitigation" of the plague in her realm.
Between 27 August & 1 October around 1,500 people on average were dying each week. The figure peaked at 1,828 plague deaths in London for the week ending 1 October. The Queen’s government gave new orders on 30 September that all houses with infected individuals should have their doors & windows boarded up & that no person inside shall make contact with persons outside for 40 days. This strict quarantine may have had an immediate effect, with plague deaths the next week dropping over 30% to 1,262 for the week ending 8 October.
During plague outbreaks the disease tends to subside or break in a community during the winter months, as rats & their fleas retreat from snow. By 2 December deaths had fallen to 178 per week & the Common Council released an order that none of the houses where plague patients had been can be rented out. Cases continued to decline to 13 deaths for the week ending 21 January 1564 before plague died out in the city.
Other 1 June history;
1098 - First Crusade: The first Siege of Antioch ends as Crusader forces take the city, the second siege began five days later.
1648 – The Battle of Maidstone. Fought in the Second English Civil War it was a victory for the attacking Parliamentarian troops led by Sir Thomas Fairfax over the defending Royalist forces.
1670 – In Dover, England, Charles II of England & Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover, which will force England into the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
2 June 1420
King Henry V married Catherine of Valois
Henry V had been king for seven years when he married Catherine of Valois, daughter of King Charles VI of France. They married on 2 June 1420, at the Parish Church of St John or at Troyes Cathedral.
It was a supremely triumphant affair, attended by nobles & royalty from both England & France, & King James I of Scotland, a long-term but honoured prisoner in England, was also present.
Henry, now aged thirty-two, was at the height of his popularity & the coronation of his attractive nineteen year old queen was a cause for great rejoicing. A contemporary French chronicler, Enguerrand de Monstrelet, remarked that from the time that Catherine arrived at Dover ‘she was received as if she had been an angel of God.’
Catherine gave birth to a son named Henry (later King Henry VI of England) on 6 December 1421 at Windsor. Her husband never saw their child. During the siege of Meaux, he became sick with dysentery & died on 31 August 1422, just before his 36th birthday.
Catherine was not quite 21 & was left a queen dowager. Charles VI died a couple of months after Henry V, making the young Henry VI king of England & English-occupied northern France. Catherine doted on her son during his early childhood.
Did You Know?
Catherine's (died 1437) tomb was deliberately destroyed in the reign of her grandson, Henry VII. It has been suggested that Henry ordered her memorial to be removed to distance himself from his illegitimate ancestry. At this time, her coffin lid was accidentally raised, revealing her corpse, which for generations became a tourist attraction.
In 1669 the diarist Samuel Pepys kissed the long-deceased queen on his birthday:
"On Shrove Tuesday 1669, I to the Abbey went, & by favour did see the body of Queen Catherine of Valois, & had the upper part of the body in my hands, & I did kiss her mouth, reflecting upon it I did kiss a Queen: & this my birthday & I thirty-six years old & I did kiss a Queen." — Samuel Pepys
Catherine's remains were not properly re-interred until the reign of Queen Victoria.
Did You Know? Henry V of England is the 1st cousin 17 times removed of Queen Elizabeth II. Their common ancestor is John of Gaunt.
2 June 1953
Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II
There was an added influence. Some months earlier, dowager Queen Mary’s doctors had told her that she was too ill to attend the service, & it was she who helped persuade her granddaughter to go along with the broadcasters’ wishes. In the event, Queen Mary died peacefully on 24 March, but Elizabeth’s mind was made up.
As she rode in the Gold State Coach to Westminster Abbey, the Queen wore a satin dress designed & made by Norman Hartnell, embroidered with emblems of the United Kingdom & the Commonwealth in gold & silver thread & encrusted with seed pearls & crystals. She carried a bouquet of orchids & lilies of the valley from England, stephanotis from Scotland, carnations from Northern Ireland & the Isle of Man, & orchids from Wales. On her head was the George IV State Diadem, which also incorporates national symbols – the rose, shamrock & thistle – in the arrangement of its 1,333 diamonds & 169 pearls.
For a more detailed look at the coronation visit 'Elizabeth II Coronation'
Other 2 June history;
1418 – Catherine of Lancaster, queen of Henry III of Castile died (b.1373). Catherine was a daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster & later Queen of Castile by marriage to King Henry III of Castile.
1857 – Edward Elgar, English composer and educator was born (d. 1934).
2 June 2022 - The Queen's Platinum Jubilee celebrations begin with Trooping the Colour.
3 June 1865
King George V was born
George V was the King of the United Kingdom & the British Dominions, & Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. He was born on 3 June 1865, in Marlborough House, London. He was the second son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later king Edward VII), & Alexandra, Princess of Wales (later Queen Alexandra). George's father was the eldest son of Queen Victoria & Prince Albert, & his mother was the eldest daughter of King Christian IX & Queen Louise of Denmark.
He was born in Marlborough House, London, during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria, & was third in the line of succession behind his father, Prince Albert Edward, & his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was little expectation that George would become king.
On 14 January 1892, Prince Albert Victor died of pneumonia, leaving George second in line to the throne, & likely to succeed after his father. George had only just recovered from a serious illness himself, after being confined to bed for six weeks with typhoid fever, the disease that was thought to have killed his grandfather Prince Albert.
He became king in 1910 when his father king Edward VII died. He reigned as King of the United Kingdom & the British Dominions, & Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
Did You Know? During his career in the royal navy, on HMS Bacchante he toured the colonies of the British Empire in the Caribbean, South Africa & Australia, & visited Norfolk, Virginia, as well as South America, the Mediterranean, Egypt, & East Asia. In 1881 on a visit to Japan, he met the Emperor Meiji. George & his brother presented Empress Haruko with two wallabies from Australia. It was while in Japan that he had a blue & red dragon tattooed on his arm.
Other 3 June history;
1495 - Cecily Neville died (b.1415). She was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard, Duke of York (1411–1460), & the mother of two kings of England—Edward IV & Richard III.
1937 – The Duke of Windsor marries Wallis Simpson. He was King of the UK & the Dominions of the British Empire & Emperor of India as Edward VIII from 20 January 1936 until his abdication in December of the same year.
4 June 1738
King George III was born
George was born in London at Norfolk House. He was the grandson of King George II, & the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, & Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months premature & was thought unlikely to survive, he was quickly baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, who was both Rector of St James's & the Bishop of Oxford.
George III was King of Great Britain & King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke & prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814.
He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in England, spoke English as his first language, & never visited Hanover.
George's life & reign of 59 years & 96 days, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, & places farther afield in Africa, the Americas, & Asia. Early into his reign, Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America & India. Many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence. Further wars against revolutionary & Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
George had recurrent, & eventually permanent, mental illness in later life. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. His eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death in 1820, when he succeeded as George IV.
He married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz on 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, London. whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight later on 22 September, both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George never took a mistress (unlike his grandfather & his sons), & the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage. They had 15 children—nine sons & six daughters. Buckingham House (on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace) was purchased for his Queen in 1762, for use as a family retreat. His other residences were Kew Palace & Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for official use. He did not travel extensively & spent his entire life in southern England.
Did You Know? The King & his family took holidays at Weymouth, Dorset, which he thus popularised as one of the first seaside resorts in England.
George was deeply devout & spent hours in prayer, but his piety wasn't shared by his brothers. George was disgusted by what he saw as their loose morals. In 1770, his brother Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland & Strathearn, was exposed as an adulterer, & the following year Cumberland married a young widow, Anne Horton. The King considered her inappropriate as a royal bride. George insisted on a new law that essentially forbade members of the Royal Family from legally marrying without the consent of the Sovereign. The subsequent bill was unpopular in Parliament, including among George's own ministers, but passed as the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Shortly afterwards, another of George's brothers, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester & Edinburgh, revealed he had been secretly married to Maria, Countess Waldegrave, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole. The news confirmed George's opinion that he had been right to introduce the law: Maria was related to his political opponents.
In 1800, the British & Irish Parliaments passed an Act of Union that took effect on 1 January 1801 & united Great Britain & Ireland into a single state, known as the "United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland". George used the opportunity to abandon the title "king of France", which English & British Sovereigns had maintained since the reign of Edward III. The title "Emperor of the British Isles", was suggested but he refused.
George III lived for 81 years & 239 days & was king for 59 years & 96 days: both his life & his reign were longer than those of any of his predecessors & subsequent kings. Only Queens Victoria & Elizabeth II have since lived & reigned longer.
Under George III, the British Agricultural Revolution reached its peak & great advances were made in fields such as science & industry. There was unprecedented growth in the rural population, which provided much of the workforce for the concurrent Industrial Revolution.
4 June 2012
The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Concert took place
4 June 2022
Platinum Party at the Palace Extravaganza at Buckingham Palace on the third day of the Queen's Platinum Jubilee celebrations.
Other 4 June history;
1246 - Isabella of Angoulême died (b.1188). She was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also reigning Countess of Angoulême from 1202 until 1246.
1394 - Mary de Bohun died (b. c.1368). She was the first wife of King Henry IV of England & the mother of King Henry V. Mary was never queen, as she died before her husband came to the throne.
1394 – Philippa of England, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden was born (d. 1430)
5 June 1296
Edmund Plantagenet (known as Crouchback) died aged 51
Edmund was born in London on 16 January 1245, as a member of the House of Plantagenet. He was the second surviving son of Henry III of England & Eleanor of Provence. In 1265 he was granted all the lands of Simon de Montfort & from 1267 he was titled Earl of Leicester. In the same year he began to rule Lancashire, but he did not take the title Earl of Lancaster until 1276.
His nickname, "Crouchback" (meaning "crossed-back"), indicating that he was entitled to wear a cross stitched into the back of his garments due to his participation in the Ninth Crusade. He had a reputation for being a ruthless & ferocious warrior. In 1271 he accompanied his elder brother Edward on the Ninth Crusade to Palestine. Edmund was loyal to his brother, Edward I, & frequently acted as an ambassador abroad.
On his return from the Crusade of 1271–2 he seems to have made Grosmont Castle his favoured home & undertook much rebuilding there. Edmund's duty to the church included the foundation of a Nuns of Clara or Poor Clares nunnery at Minories, St Aldate's. In 1291, he paid for the establishment for the Chapel of Savoy, in memory of his mother, at St Clement Danes. Filial piety was part of the chivalric code of an honourable knight. He was a generous benefactor to the monastery of Grace Dieu in Leicestershire, & the nuns at Tarrant Crawford. He helped establish a major Grey friars monastery at Preston.
In 1281 he supervised the construction of Aberystwyth Castle for King Edward I to subjugate the Welsh. The next year he accompanied Roger Mortimer on campaign against Llywelyn, defeating & capturing the prince. He took an army to Bordeaux for his brother. Amongst the nobles was the Earl of Lincoln & 26 banneret knights. During the siege of Bayonne the English ran out of money, so the army melted into the countryside. Broken-hearted the warrior-prince Edmund Crouchback died on 5 June. His body was carried to England & was interred on 15 July 1296 at Westminster Abbey, London.
Edmund married (1st) 8 April 1269 Aveline de Forz, the daughter of William de Forz, 4th Earl of Albemarle & Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Devon. She died just 4 years after the marriage.
He married (2nd) in Paris, on 3 February 1276 Blanche of Artois, widow of King Henry I of Navarre. They had three children; Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster & John of Lancaster.
Other Royal News on 5 June;
1341 - Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, son of king Edward III of England was born. (He is the 17th great grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II)
1610 - The masque Tethys' Festival was performed at Whitehall Palace to celebrate the investiture of Henry Frederick, Prince Of Wales. He was the eldest son of James VI & I, he died aged 18 from typhoid fever.
1771 - Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover was born. He was the fifth son of George III. (He is the 2nd great grand uncle of Queen Elizabeth II)
6 June 1931
Trooping the Colour
6 June 1944
King George VI addresses his subjects on D-Day.
"Four years ago our Nation & Empire stood alone against an overwhelming enemy with our backs to the wall. Tested as never before in our history, in God's Providence we survived that test.
The spirit of the people, resolute, dedicated, burnt like a bright flame lit surely from those unseen fires which nothing can quench.
Once more a supreme test has to be faced. This time the challenge is not to fight to survive, but to fight to win the final victory for the good cause. Once again what is demanded from us all is something more than courage, more than endurance. We need the revival of spirit, the new unconquerable resolve.
After nearly five years of toil & suffering we must renew that crusading impulse on which we entered the war & met its darkest hour.
We and our allies a sure that our fight is against evil & for a world in which goodness & honour may be the foundation of the life of men in every land.
That we may be worthily matched with these new summons of destiny I desire solemnly to call my people to prayer & dedication.
We are not unmindful of our own shortcomings, past & present. We shall ask not that God will do our will, but that we may be enabled to do the will of God. And we dare to believe that God has used our Nation & Empire as an instrument for fulfilling His high purpose.
I hope that throughout the present crisis of the liberation of Europe there may be offered us earnest, continuous & widespread prayer.
We, who remain in this land, can most effectively enter into the suffering of subjugated Europe by prayer. Whereby we can fortify determination of our sailors, soldiers and airmen who go forth to set the captives free.
The Queen joins with me in sending you this message. She well understands the anxieties & cares of our womenfolk at this time. And she knows that many of them will find, as she does herself, fresh strength & comfort in such waiting upon God.
She feels that many women will be glad in this way to keep vigil with their men as they man the ships, storm the beaches & fill the skies.
At this historic moment surely not one of us is too busy, too young, or too old to play a part in a nationwide, a worldwide vigil of prayer as the great Crusade sets forth.
If from every place of worship, from home & factory, from men & women of all ages & many races & occupations, our intercessions rise, then, please God, both now & in the future not remote, the predictions of an ancient song may be fulfilled:
"The Lord will give strength unto His people, the Lord will give His people the blessing of peace."
D-Day, 6 June 1944, marked the start of the Allied invasion of Normandy, the greatest amphibious operation in history. Codenamed Overlord, this vast cross-Channel attack enabled the United Kingdom, the United States and their allies to land substantial forces on mainland Europe during the Second World War (1939-45).
Other 6 June history;
1848 - Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom funeral. Princess Sophia Matilda of the United Kingdom (3 November 1777 – 27 May 1848) was the twelfth child & fifth daughter of King George III & Queen Charlotte.
1872 - Alix of Hesse and by Rhine was born. She was later Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of Russia as the wife of Nicholas II, the last ruler of the Russian Empire. She was the sixth child & fourth daughter among the seven children of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, & his first wife, Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, the second daughter of Queen Victoria & her husband Albert, Prince Consort.
1921 - Southwark Bridge in London was opened to traffic by King George V & Queen Mary.1934 - Albert II of Belgium was born.
7 June 929
Ælfthryth of Wessex, Countess of Flanders died.
Ælfthryth of Wessex (born. 877 was also known as Elftrudis (Elftrude, Elfrida). She was an English princess & a countess consort of Flanders.
She was the youngest daughter of Alfred the Great, the Saxon King of England & his wife Ealhswith. Her siblings included King Edward the Elder & King Æthelflæd. Between 893 & 899, Ælfthryth married Baldwin II (died 918), Count of Flanders.
They had the following children:
Arnulf I of Flanders (c. 890–964/65)
Adalulf, Count of Boulogne (c. 890 – 933)
7 June 1394
Anne of Bohemia died from the plague
Anne of Bohemia, was born on 11 May 1366 in Prague, The Kingdom of Bohemia. She was Queen of England as the first wife of King Richard II. Anne was a member of the House of Luxembourg. Her father was of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor & King of Bohemia, & her mother was Elizabeth of Pomerania.
Anne had four brothers, including Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, & one younger sister, Margaret of Bohemia, Burgravine of Nuremberg. She also had five half-siblings from her father's previous marriages.
The Evesham chronicler said, "this queen, although she did not bear children, was still held to have contributed to the glory & wealth of the realm, as far as she was able. Noble & common people suffered greatly at her death". Nevertheless, her popular legacy as "Good Queen Anne" suggests that this lack of children was unimportant to many contemporaries.
14th century Queen of Richard II – Anne of Bohemia – illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906.
Anne died from the plague, at Sheen Manor. The king was so grief-stricken that he completely demolished Sheen Manor, where she had died. She was known for having a calming influence on her volatile husband, after her death his conduct eventually lost him the throne.
Anne is buried at Westminster Abbey beside her husband. Their joint tomb, now damaged, once showed them clasping hands. The inscription on her tomb describes her as "beauteous in body & her face was gentle & pretty." When her tomb was opened in 1871, it was discovered that many of her bones had been stolen by relic hunters, via a hole in the side of the casket.
Did You Know? Anne of Bohemia is known to have made the side-saddle more popular to ladies of the Middle Ages.
She also influenced the design of carts in England when she arrived in a carriage, presumably from Kocs, Hungary, to meet her future husband Richard. She also made the horned, Bohemian-style headdress the fashionable for Englishwomen in the late 14th-century.
Other 7 June history;
1099 - First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem began.
1329 - Robert I of Scotland (popularly known as Robert the Bruce) died aged 54.
1628 - The Petition of Right, a major English constitutional document, was granted the Royal Assent by Charles I & becomes law. It was reportedly of equal value to Magna Carta & the Bill of Rights 1689.
8 June 900
Edward the Elder coronation
Edward the Elder (c. 874 – 17 July 924) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death. He was the elder son of Alfred the Great & his wife Ealhswith. When Edward succeeded to the throne, he had to defeat a challenge from his cousin Æthelwold, who had a strong claim to the throne as the son of Alfred's elder brother & predecessor, Æthelred. Alfred had succeeded Æthelred as king of Wessex in 871, & almost faced defeat against the Danish Vikings until his decisive victory at the Battle of Edington in 878. After the battle, the Vikings ruled Northumbria, East Anglia & eastern Mercia, leaving only Wessex & western Mercia under Anglo-Saxon control. In the early 880's Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, the ruler of western Mercia, accepted Alfred's lordship & married his daughter Æthelflæd, & around the year 886 Alfred adopted the new title King of the Anglo-Saxons as the ruler of all Anglo-Saxons not subject to Danish rule.
In 910 a combined Mercian & West Saxon army inflicted a crushing defeat on an invading Northumbrian army, ending the threat from the northern Vikings. In the 910's, Edward conquered Viking-ruled southern England, with his sister Æthelflæd, who had been named as Lady of the Mercians following the death of her husband in 911. After Æthelflæd's death in June 918, her daughter Ælfwynn briefly became second Lady of the Mercians, but in December her uncle Edward took her into Wessex & imposed direct rule on Mercia. By the end of the 910's he ruled Wessex, Mercia & East Anglia, & only Northumbria was still under Viking control. In 924 he faced a Mercian & Welsh revolt at Chester, & after defeating the revolt he died at Farndon in Cheshire on 17 July 924. He was succeeded by his eldest son Æthelstan.
Edward was greatly admired by medieval chroniclers, & William of Malmesbury wrote he was "much inferior to his father in the cultivation of letters" but "incomparably more glorious in the power of his rule".
'Kingston' upon Thames is a town, former manor, ecclesiastical parish & borough now within Greater London, England. It is situated on the River Thames, southwest of Charing Cross (deemed the geographical centre of London). It is notable as the ancient market town in which Saxon kings were crowned & today is the administrative centre of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames. Kingston was called 'Cyninges tun' in 838 AD, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 & Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589. The name means 'the king's manor or estate' from the Old English words cyning & tun. It belonged to the king in Saxon times & was the earliest royal borough.
The first surviving record of Kingston is from AD 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex & Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex & Mercia, until in the early tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states, two tenth-century kings were consecrated in Kingston: Æthelstan (925), & Æthelred the Unready (978). There are certain other kings who are said to have been crowned there, but for whom the evidence is less substantial: Edward the Elder (902), Edmund I (939), Eadred (946), Eadwig (956), Edgar the Peaceful (circa 960) & Edward the Martyr (975). It was later thought that the coronations were conducted in the chapel of St Mary, which collapsed in 1730. Tradition dating to the 18th century holds that a large stone recovered from the ruins played a part in the coronations. It was initially used as a mounting block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before finally being moved to the grounds of the Guildhall.
8 June 1492
Elizabeth Woodville died
Elizabeth Woodville was Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483. She was born about 1437 at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire, the first-born child of Sir Richard Woodville & Jacquetta of Luxembourg. Elizabeth's mother, was the widow of the Duke of Bedford, uncle of King Henry VI of England. In about 1452, Elizabeth Woodville married Sir John Grey of Groby, the heir to the Barony Ferrers of Groby. He was killed at the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461, fighting for the Lancastrian cause. This would become a source of irony, since Elizabeth's future husband Edward IV was the Yorkist claimant to the throne. Elizabeth & Sir John had two sons, Thomas, later Marquess of Dorset, born in 1455, & Richard, born in 1457. Richard was aged about 26 when executed on the orders of Richard III in June 1483.
The widowed Elizabeth Woodville married Edward IV in secret &, though the date is not recorded, it is traditionally said to have taken place at her family home in Northamptonshire on 1 May 1464. Only the bride's mother & two ladies were in attendance. Edward married her just over three years after he had assumed the English throne after his overwhelming victory over the Lancastrians, at the Battle of Towton, which resulted in the displacement of King Henry VI. Elizabeth Woodville was crowned queen of England on 26 May 1465. In the early years of his reign, Edward IV's governance of England was dependent upon a small circle of supporters, most notably his cousin, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (the Kingmaker). About the time of Edward IV's secret marriage, Warwick was negotiating an alliance with France in an effort to thwart a similar arrangement being made by his sworn enemy Margaret of Anjou, wife of the deposed Henry VI. The plan was that Edward IV should marry a French princess. When his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, who was both a commoner & from a family of Lancastrian supporters became public, Warwick was both embarrassed & deeply offended, & his relationship with Edward IV never recovered.
Warwick eventually conspired with his son-in-law George, Duke of Clarence, the king's younger brother. Warwick & Clarence twice rose in revolt & then fled to France after defeat. Warwick then formed an uneasy alliance with the Lancastrian Queen Margaret of Anjou & restored her husband Henry VI to the throne in 1470. But the following year, Edward IV, returned from exile & defeated Warwick at the Battle of Barnet, & the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry VI was killed soon afterwards, possibly on the orders of Edward himself.
Following her husband's temporary fall from power, Elizabeth sought sanctuary in Westminster Abbey, where she gave birth to a son, Edward (later King Edward V of England). Her marriage to Edward IV produced a total of ten children, including another son, Richard, Duke of York, who would later join his brother as one of the Princes in the Tower. Five daughters also lived to adulthood.
The portrait of her shown above is probably a multiple-generation copy of one taken from life. The College has several versions in differing states. She is shown posed in the high fashion of the day, with strained back hair & a partial veil. c.1471.
Elizabeth engaged in acts of Christian piety, her acts included making pilgrimages, obtaining a papal indulgence for those who knelt & said the Angelus three times per day, & founding the chapel of St. Erasmus in Westminster Abbey. Following Edward IV's sudden death, in April 1483, Elizabeth became queen dowager. Her young son, Edward V, became king, with his uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, acting as Lord Protector. Gloucester then moved to take control of the young king & had the king's uncle Earl Rivers & half-brother Richard Grey, son to Elizabeth, arrested. The young king was transferred to the Tower of London to await the coronation. With her younger son & daughters, Elizabeth again sought sanctuary.
On 25 June 1483, Gloucester had Elizabeth Woodville's son & brother executed in Pontefract Castle. Then by an act of Parliament, the Titulus Regius (1 Ric. III), it was declared that Edward IV's children with Elizabeth were illegitimate on the grounds that Edward IV had a precontract with the Lady Eleanor Butler, which was considered a legally binding contract that in effect rendered any other marriage contract invalid. The act also contained charges of witchcraft against Elizabeth, but gave no details & had no further repercussions. The Duke of Gloucester & Lord Protector was offered the throne & became King Richard III. Edward V, who was no longer king, & his brother Richard, Duke of York, remained in the Tower of London, never to be seen again after the summer of 1483.
Now referred to as Dame Elizabeth Grey, she & the Duke of Buckingham now allied themselves with Lady Margaret Stanley (née Beaufort) & espoused the cause of Margaret's son Henry Tudor, a great-great-great-grandson of King Edward III, the closest male heir of the Lancastrian claim to the throne with any degree of validity. To strengthen his claim & unite the two feuding noble houses, Elizabeth Woodville & Margaret Beaufort agreed that the latter's son should marry the former's eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York, who upon the death of her brothers became the heiress of the House of York. Henry Tudor agreed & in December 1483 publicly swore an oath to that effect in the cathedral in Rennes, France.
Richard III's first Parliament of January 1484 stripped Elizabeth of all the lands given to her during Edward IV's reign. In March 1484, Elizabeth & her daughters came out of sanctuary after Richard III publicly swore an oath that her daughters would not be harmed or molested & that they wouldn't be imprisoned in any prison. He also promised to provide them with marriage portions & to marry them to "gentlemen born". The family returned to Court, apparently reconciled to Richard III.
After the death of Richard III's wife Anne Neville, in March 1485, rumours arose that the newly widowed king was going to marry his beautiful & young niece Elizabeth of York.
In 1485, Henry Tudor invaded England & defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. As King, Henry VII married Elizabeth of York & had the Titulus Regius revoked & all found copies destroyed. Elizabeth Woodville was accorded the title & honours of a queen dowager.
Scholars differ about why Dowager Queen Elizabeth spent the last five years of her life living at Bermondsey Abbey, to which she retired on 12 February 1487. Among her modern biographers, David Baldwin believes that Henry VII forced her retreat from the Court, while Arlene Okerlund presents evidence from July 1486 that she was already planning her retirement from court to live a religious, contemplative life at Bermondsey Abbey. Another suggestion is that her retreat to Bermondsey was forced on her because she was in some way involved in the 1487 Yorkist rebellion of Lambert Simnel, or at least was seen as a potential ally of the rebels.
At Bermondsey Abbey, Elizabeth was treated with respect due to a dowager queen. She lived a regal life on a pension of £400 & received small gifts from Henry VII. She was present at the birth of her granddaughter Margaret at Westminster Palace in November 1489 & at the birth of her grandson, the future Henry VIII, at Greenwich Palace in June 1491. Her daughter Queen Elizabeth visited her on occasion at Bermondsey, although another one of her other daughters, Cecily of York, visited her more often.
Elizabeth died at Bermondsey Abbey, on 8 June 1492. With the exception of the queen, who was awaiting the birth of her fourth child, & Cecily of York, her daughters attended the funeral at Windsor Castle; Anne of York, Catherine of York (the future Countess of Devon) & Bridget of York (a nun at Dartford Priory). Elizabeth's will specified a simple ceremony. She was laid to rest in the same chantry as her husband King Edward IV in St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle.
Did You Know? Elizabeth Woodville was called "the most beautiful woman in the Island of Britain" with "heavy-lidded eyes like those of a dragon."
Other 8 June history;
1042 - King Harthacnut died aged 23 or 24. Harthacnut, traditionally Hardicanute, sometimes referred to as Canute III, was King of Denmark from 1035 to 1042 & King of the English from 1040 to 1042. Harthacnut was the son of King Cnut the Great (who ruled Denmark, Norway, & England) & Emma of Normandy.
1042 - Edward the Confessor became king of England.
1191 - Richard I Lionheart arrived in Acre, beginning the crusade.
1376 - Edward, the Black Prince died. He was the eldest son & heir of King Edward III, he was aged 45. He died before his father & so his son, Richard II, succeeded to the throne instead.
9 June 1923
Princess Helena of the United Kingdom died
Princess Helena (b.25 May 1846) was the third daughter & fifth child of Queen Victoria & Prince Albert.
She was educated by private tutors chosen by Prince Albert & his close friend & adviser, Baron Stockmar. Her childhood was spent with her parents, travelling between royal residences in Britain. On 14 December 1861, her father died & her mother entered a period of intense mourning.
In the early 1860's, Helena began a relationship with Prince Albert's German librarian, Carl Ruland. Although the nature of the relationship is largely unknown, Helena's romantic letters to Ruland survive. After the Queen found out in 1863, she dismissed Ruland, who returned to Germany. Three years later, on 5 July 1866, Helena married Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. The couple remained in Britain, close to the Queen, who liked to have her daughters close-by. Helena, along with her youngest sister, Princess Beatrice, became the Queen's unofficial secretary. Queen Victoria's died on 22 January 1901.
Helena was the most active member of the royal family, carrying out a large programme of royal engagements. She was also a patron of charities, & was one of the founding members of the British Red Cross. She was founding president of the Royal School of Needlework, & president of the Workhouse Infirmary Nursing Association & the Royal British Nurses' Association. As president of the latter, she was a strong supporter of nurse registration against the advice of Florence Nightingale.
Did You Know? In 1916 she became the FIRST member of her family to celebrate her 50th wedding anniversary, but her husband died a year later.
Helena outlived her husband by six years, & died aged 77 at Schomberg House on 9 June 1923. Her funeral, described as a "magnificently stage-managed scene" by her biographer Seweryn Chomet, was headed by her nephew King George V. The regiment of her favourite son, Prince Christian Victor, lined the steps of St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. Although originally interred in the Royal Vault at St George's on 15 June 1923, her body was reburied at the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore, a few miles from Windsor, after its consecration on 23 October 1928.
Helena had six children with Prince Christian, four of whom lived to adulthood. They had one grandchild, Valerie Marie zu Schleswig-Holstein, who died in 1953 as their last descendant.
Prince Christian Victor (b.14 April 1867 - d. 29 October 1900). His mother's favourite son; died while serving in the Boer War.
Prince Albert (28 February 1869 - 27 April 1931). Succeeded as head of the House of Oldenburg in 1921.
Princess Helena Victoria (3 May 1870 - 13 March 1948). Never married.
Princess Marie Louise (12 August 1872 - 8 December 1956), Married 1891 to Prince Aribert of Anhalt; no children; marriage was dissolved in 1900.
Prince Harald (12 May 1876 - 20 May 1876). Died an infant at eight days old.
An unnamed stillborn son (7 May 1877 - 7 May 1877)
Helena's daughter, Princess Marie Louise, described her as;
very lovely, with wavy brown hair, a beautiful little straight nose, & lovely amber-coloured eyes ... She was very talented: played the piano exquisitively, had a distinct gift for drawing & painting in water-colours ... Her outstanding gift was loyalty to her friends ... She was brilliantly clever, had a wonderful head for business.
Other 9 June history;
1500 - Henry VII & Elizabeth of York visited Calais.
1870 - Charles Dickens died.
10 June 1921
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was born (d.2021)
Life up to his wedding in 1947;
Prince Philip of Greece & Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu. He was the only son & fifth & final child of Prince Andrew of Greece & Denmark & Princess Alice of Battenberg.
As member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, itself a branch of the House of Oldenburg, Philip was a prince of both Greece & Denmark by virtue of his patrilineal descent from George I of Greece & Christian IX of Denmark, & he was from birth in the line of succession to both thrones; the Danish Act of Succession 1953 removed the succession rights of his branch of the family in Denmark. Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora, Cecilie, & Sophie. Philip was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu.
After Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, then known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British subject, who, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles & adopted the surname Mountbatten an Anglicised version of Battenberg during the First World War, owing to anti-German feelings in Britain. Philip attended his grandfather's memorial service in London with his mother. His father had remained in Greece to command an army division fighting in the Greco-Turkish War.
The war was disastrous for Greece, & the Turkish army made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate, & the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others. The commander of the army, & five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, & Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life. The British ship HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family. The family went to France, where they settled in Paris in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece & Denmark.
Did You Know? Philip was carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box.
Philip was first educated at The Elms, an American school in Paris. Donald MacJannet, described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite". In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, at Kensington Palace & his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire. His four sisters married German princes & moved to Germany, his mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia & placed in an asylum, & his father moved to Monte Carlo. Philip had very little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem, a school in Germany. Nazism was taking a hold of Germany, & Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution & founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland, to which Philip moved after two terms at Salem.
In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, her two young sons, Ludwig & Alexander, her newborn infant, & her mother-in-law, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, were killed in an air crash at Ostend; Philip, attended the funeral in Darmstadt.
After leaving Gordonstoun in early 1939, Philip completed a term at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, then moved to Greece, living with his mother in Athens for a month in mid-1939. George II, king of Greece, instructed Philip to return to Britain in September to resume training for the Royal Navy. Philip graduated from Dartmouth the next year as the best cadet in his course. During the Second World War, he continued to serve in the British forces, while two of his brothers-in-law, Prince Christoph of Hesse & Berthold, Margrave of Baden, fought on the opposing German side. In January 1940 he was appointed as a midshipman, & spent four months on the battleship HMS Ramillies, protecting convoys of the Australian Expeditionary Force in the Indian Ocean, followed by shorter postings on HMS Kent, on HMS Shropshire, & in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). After the Italian invasion of Greece in October 1940, he was transferred to the battleship HMS Valiant in the Mediterranean Fleet.
Philip was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant after a series of courses at Portsmouth in 1941. He was involved in the battle of Crete, & was mentioned in dispatches for his service during the battle of Cape Matapan, in which he controlled the battleship's searchlights. He was also awarded the Greek War Cross of Valour. In June 1942, he was appointed to the V & W-class destroyer & flotilla leader HMS Wallace, which was then involved in convoy escort tasks on the east coast of Britain, as well as the Allied invasion of Sicily.
In 16 July 1942 he was promoted to Lieutenant. & in October he became first lieutenant of HMS Wallace, at 21 years old one of the youngest first lieutenants in the Royal Navy. During the invasion of Sicily, in July 1943, as second in command of Wallace, he saved his ship from a night bomber attack. He devised a plan to launch a raft with smoke floats that successfully distracted the bombers, allowing the ship to slip away unnoticed. He moved to the new destroyer, HMS Whelp in 1944, where he saw service with the British Pacific Fleet in the 27th Destroyer Flotilla. Philip was present in Tokyo Bay when the instrument of Japanese surrender was signed. In January 1946 Philip returned to the United Kingdom, & was posted as an instructor at HMS Royal Arthur, the Petty Officers' School in Corsham, Wiltshire.
In the summer of 1946, Philip asked George VI for his daughter's hand in marriage. The King granted his request, provided that any formal engagement be delayed until Elizabeth's 21st birthday the following April. By March 1947, Philip had abandoned his Greek & Danish royal titles, had adopted the surname Mountbatten from his mother's family, & had become a naturalised British subject. on 10 July the engagement was announced to the public.
King George VI bestowed the style of Royal Highness on Philip &, on the morning of the wedding, 20 November 1947, he was made the Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, & Baron Greenwich of Greenwich in the County of London. Already being a Knight of the Garter, he bore the unusual style His Royal Highness Sir Philip Mountbatten, & is so described in the Letters Patent of 20 November 1947.
Philip & Elizabeth were married in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey. The service was recorded & broadcast by BBC radio to 200 million people around the world. After their marriage, the Duke & Duchess of Edinburgh took up residence at Clarence House.
Other 10 June history;
1688 – James Francis Edward Stuart, claimant to the English & Scottish throne was born (d. 1766). He nicknamed the Old Pretender by Whigs, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland & Ireland, & his second wife, Mary of Modena.
1711 - Princess Amelia of Great Britain was born (d.1786). She was the second daughter of King George II of Great Britain & Queen Caroline.
1713 - Princess Caroline of Great Britain was born. Her father was George Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Hanover, the eldest son of George Louis, Elector of Hanover (later George II of Great Britain). Her mother was Caroline of Ansbach.
1974 - Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester died (b.1900). He was the third son & fourth child of King George V & Queen Mary
11 June 1456
Anne Neville was born
Anne Neville was an English queen, the younger of the two daughters & co-heiresses of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (the "Kingmaker"). She became Princess of Wales as the wife of Edward of Westminster (only son & heir apparent of King Henry VI) & then Queen of England as the wife of King Richard III.
She was born at Warwick Castle. Her father was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, & mother, Anne de Beauchamp. Her father was one of the most powerful noblemen in England & the most important supporter of the House of York. Her grandfather's sister, Cecily Neville, was the wife of Richard, Duke of York, who claimed the crown for the House of York.
As a member of the powerful House of Neville, Anne played a critical part in the Wars of the Roses fought between the House of York & House of Lancaster for the English crown. Her father Warwick betrothed her as a girl to Edward, Prince of Wales, the son of Henry VI. The marriage was arranged in order to seal an alliance to the House of Lancaster & halt the civil war between the two houses of Lancaster & York.
After the death of Prince Edward at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, she married Richard, Duke of Gloucester (in 1472), younger brother of King Edward IV & of George, Duke of Clarence, the husband of Anne's elder sister Isabel Neville. Anne became queen when Richard III ascended the throne in June 1483, following the declaration that Edward IV's children by Elizabeth Woodville were illegitimate. Anne Neville died on 16 March 1485, five months before her husband. Her only child was Edward of Middleham, who predeceased her (d. April 1484).
11 June 1509
Henry VIII married Katharine of Aragon
Henry VIII married Katharine of Aragon on 11 June 1509, seven years after her first husband Prince Arthur's death. She married Henry VIII, who had only just acceded to the throne, in a private ceremony in the church of the Observant Friars outside Greenwich Palace. She was 23 years of age. The opportunity for celebrations came two weeks later when they were both crowned King & Queen.
Other 11 June history;
1183 - Henry the Young King died (b.1155).
1430 - Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond was born, he was the father of Henry VII, king of England.
1488 - James III, king of Scotland died (b.1451).
1560 - Mary of Guise, queen of James V of Scotland died (b.1515).
1727 - George I died (b.1660). He was King of Great Britain & Ireland from 1 August 1714 & ruler of the Duchy & Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 23 January 1698 until his death in 1727. He was the first British monarch of the House of Hanover.
12 June 918
Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians died
Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians was born c. 870. She ruled Mercia in the English Midlands from 911 until her death. She was the eldest daughter of Alfred the Great, king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, & his wife Ealhswith.
When her husband Æthelred died in 911, Æthelflæd ruled Mercia as Lady of the Mercians. The accession of a female ruler in Mercia is described by the historian Ian Walker as "one of the most unique events in early medieval history".
Image above: The new Æthelflaed statue outside Tamworth Railway Station, erected to commemorate 1,100 years since her death in Tamworth. Her spear points visitors towards the town centre & Tamworth Castle.
For more about Æthelflæd visit ' Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians
Other 12 June history;
1492 - Elizabeth Woodville funeral
1643 – The Westminster Assembly is convened by the Parliament of England, without the assent of Charles I, in order to restructure the Church of England.
1758 - Prince Augustus William of Prussia died (b.1722)
1997 - Queen Elizabeth reopened the Globe Theatre in London.
To be continued.....
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